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  1. While conducting systemic reviews, searching for ongoing or unpublished trials is critical to address publication bias. As of April 2019, records of ongoing or unpublished randomized and/or quasi-randomized co...

    Authors: Masahiro Banno, Yasushi Tsujimoto and Yuki Kataoka

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:200

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Missing data are common in statistical analyses, and imputation methods based on random forests (RF) are becoming popular for handling missing data especially in biomedical research. Unlike standard imputation...

    Authors: Shangzhi Hong and Henry S. Lynn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:199

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evidence-based practice. However, RCTs can have limitations. For example, translation of findings into practice can be limited by design features, ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Lemanska, Rachel C. Byford, Clare Cruickshank, David P. Dearnaley, Filipa Ferreira, Clare Griffin, Emma Hall, William Hinton, Simon de Lusignan, Julian Sherlock and Sara Faithfull

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Under competing risks, the commonly used sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) is not easy to interpret clinically and is valid only under the proportional sub-distribution hazard (SDH) assumption. This paper intro...

    Authors: Jingjing Lyu, Yawen Hou and Zheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:197

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases divided by population size is used as a coarse measurement for the burden of disease in a population. However, this fraction depends heavily on the sampling intensity and...

    Authors: Ola Brynildsrud

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:196

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Controlling unobserved confounding still remains a great challenge in observational studies, and a series of strict assumptions of the existing methods usually may be violated in practice. Therefore, it is urg...

    Authors: Lu Liu, Lei Hou, Yuanyuan Yu, Xinhui Liu, Xiaoru Sun, Fan Yang, Qing Wang, Ming Jing, Yeping Xu, Hongkai Li and Fuzhong Xue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:195

    Content type: Technical advance

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  7. Two-dimensional personalized medicine (2-PM) models are tools for measuring individual benefits of medical treatments for chronic diseases which have potential applications in personalized medicine. These mode...

    Authors: Zhiwen Wang and Francisco J. Diaz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:193

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although the WHO Trial Registration Data Set (TRDS) has been published for many years, the quality of clinical trial registrations with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is still not satisfactory, especially ...

    Authors: Xuan Zhang, Liang Lan, Jacky C. P. Chan, Linda L. D. Zhong, Chung-Wah Cheng, Wai-Ching Lam, Ran Tian, Chen Zhao, Tai-Xiang Wu, Hong-Cai Shang, Ai-Ping Lyu and Zhao-Xiang Bian

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:192

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Vaccine clinical studies typically provide time-resolved data on adaptive response read-outs in response to the administration of that particular vaccine to a cohort of individuals. However, modeling such data...

    Authors: Dicle Hasdemir, Robert A. van den Berg, Antoine van Kampen and Age K. Smilde

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In pairwise meta-analysis, the contribution of each study to the pooled estimate is given by its weight, which is based on the inverse variance of the estimate from that study. For network meta-analysis (NMA),...

    Authors: Gerta Rücker, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Georgia Salanti, Richard D. Riley and Guido Schwarzer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:190

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Most researchers in Uzbekistan prefer to publish their reports in journals of their home country. Moreover, the proportion of healthcare practitioners who prefer to use these national sources of information al...

    Authors: Timur Aripov, Dilfuza Aniyozova and Irina Gorbunova

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:189

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Evaluating women’s satisfaction should reflect the entire maternity care experience (antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal). The Women’s Experience Maternity Care Scale (WEMCS) questionnaire enables this assess...

    Authors: L. Floris and C. de Labrusse

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:188

    Content type: Research article

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  13. With declining response proportions in population-based research the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving response increases. We investigated whether an additional flyer wi...

    Authors: Stefan Rach, Kathrin Günther and Birte Hadeler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:187

    Content type: Research article

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  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Muriel Buri, Armin Curt, John Steeves and Torsten Hothorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:186

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:104

  15. Network meta-analysis synthesises data from a number of clinical trials in order to assess the comparative efficacy of multiple healthcare interventions in similar patient populations. In situations where clin...

    Authors: Rhiannon K. Owen, Sylwia Bujkiewicz, Douglas G. Tincello and Keith R. Abrams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:184

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Population estimates of alcohol consumption vary widely among samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. Some of this difference may relate to non-representative sampling. In so...

    Authors: KS Kylie Lee, Michelle S. Fitts, James H. Conigrave, Catherine Zheng, Jimmy Perry, Scott Wilson, Dudley Ah Chee, Shane Bond, Keith Weetra, Tanya N. Chikritzhs, Tim Slade and Katherine M. Conigrave

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:183

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Although there is trial evidence that complex interventions are effective for the self-management of heart failure, little evidence supports their effectiveness in routine practice. We used Social Practice The...

    Authors: Julia Frost, Jennifer Wingham, Nicky Britten, Colin Greaves, Charles Abraham, Fiona C. Warren, Hasnain Dalal and Rod S. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:181

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Given the high prevalence of neck pain, the neck disability index (NDI) has been used to evaluate patient status and treatment outcomes. Modified versions were proposed as solutions to measurement deficits in ...

    Authors: Ze Lu, Joy C. MacDermid and Goris Nazari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In epidemiology, causal inference and prediction modeling methodologies have been historically distinct. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are used to model a priori causal assumptions and inform variable selecti...

    Authors: Marco Piccininni, Stefan Konigorski, Jessica L. Rohmann and Tobias Kurth

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:179

    Content type: Technical advance

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  20. Linking survey data to administrative records requires informed participant consent. When linkage includes child data, this includes parental and child consent. Little is known of the potential impacts of intr...

    Authors: Kelly Morgan, Nicholas Page, Rachel Brown, Sara Long, Gillian Hewitt, Marcos Del Pozo-Banos, Ann John, Simon Murphy and Graham Moore

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:178

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in December 2019, a substantial body of COVID-19 medical literature has been generated. As of June 2020, gaps and longitudinal trends in the COVID-19 medical litera...

    Authors: Nan Liu, Marcel Lucas Chee, Chenglin Niu, Pin Pin Pek, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, John Pastor Ansah, David Bruce Matchar, Sean Shao Wei Lam, Hairil Rizal Abdullah, Angelique Chan, Rahul Malhotra, Nicholas Graves, Mariko Siyue Koh, Sungwon Yoon, Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Daniel Shu Wei Ting…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:177

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Text messaging systems are used to collect data on symptom prevalence. Using a text messaging system, we evaluated the effects of question load, question frequency, and financial incentive on response rates an...

    Authors: Ryan Rego, Samuel Watson, Philbert Ishengoma, Philemon Langat, Hezekiah Pireh Otieno and Richard Lilford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:174

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Although the benefits of using methodological frameworks are increasingly recognised, to date, there is no formal definition of what constitutes a ‘methodological framework’, nor is there any published guidanc...

    Authors: Nicola McMeekin, Olivia Wu, Evi Germeni and Andrew Briggs

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:173

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Prognostic research has many important purposes, including (i) describing the natural history and clinical course of health conditions, (ii) investigating variables associated with health outcomes of interest,...

    Authors: Peter Kent, Carol Cancelliere, Eleanor Boyle, J. David Cassidy and Alice Kongsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:172

    Content type: Debate

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  25. Machine learning approaches have become increasingly popular modeling techniques, relying on data-driven heuristics to arrive at its solutions. Recent comparisons between these algorithms and traditional stati...

    Authors: Joshua J. Levy and A. James O’Malley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:171

    Content type: Technical advance

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  26. When data are collected subject to a detection limit, observations below the detection limit may be considered censored. In addition, the domain of such observations may be restricted; for example, values may ...

    Authors: Justin R. Williams, Hyung-Woo Kim and Catherine M. Crespi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:170

    Content type: Research article

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  27. A key component of the implementation process is identifying potential barriers and facilitators that need to be addressed. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is one of the most commonly used frameworks f...

    Authors: Nicole Etherington, Isabel Braganca Rodrigues, Lora Giangregorio, Ian D. Graham, Alison M. Hoens, Danielle Kasperavicius, Christine Kelly, Julia E. Moore, Matteo Ponzano, Justin Presseau, Kathryn M. Sibley and Sharon Straus

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:169

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Causal effect estimation with observational data is subject to bias due to confounding, which is often controlled for using propensity scores. One unresolved issue in propensity score estimation is how to hand...

    Authors: Donna L. Coffman, Jiangxiu Zhou and Xizhen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:168

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In medical research and practice, the p-value is arguably the most often used statistic and yet it is widely misconstrued as the probability of the type I error, which comes with serious consequences. This misund...

    Authors: Jian Gao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:167

    Content type: Commentary

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  30. In a cross-sectional stepped-wedge trial with unequal cluster sizes, attained power in the trial depends on the realized allocation of the clusters. This attained power may differ from the expected power calcu...

    Authors: Yongdong Ouyang, Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Paul Gustafson, Thalia S. Field and Hubert Wong

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Individual clinical trials and cohort studies are a useful source of data, often under-utilised once a study has ended. Pooling data from multiple sources could increase sample sizes and allow for further inve...

    Authors: Helen Le Sueur, Ian N. Bruce and Nophar Geifman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:164

    Content type: Debate

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  32. High response rates are essential when questionnaires are used within research, as representativeness can affect the validity of studies and the ability to generalise the findings to a wider population.

    Authors: Michaela Goodwin, Tanya Walsh, William Whittaker, Richard Emsley, Matt Sutton, Martin Tickle, Michael P. Kelly and Iain A. Pretty

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:163

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Awareness of model-based designs for dose-finding studies such as the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM) is now becoming more commonplace amongst clinicians, statisticians and trial management staff. In some ...

    Authors: Erik van Werkhoven, Samantha Hinsley, Eleni Frangou, Jane Holmes, Rosemarie de Haan, Maria Hawkins, Sarah Brown and Sharon B Love

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:162

    Content type: Technical advance

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  34. The research community reacted rapidly to the emergence of COVID-19. We aimed to assess characteristics of journal articles, preprint articles, and registered trial protocols about COVID-19 and its causal agen...

    Authors: Mahir Fidahic, Danijela Nujic, Renata Runjic, Marta Civljak, Filipa Markotic, Zvjezdana Lovric Makaric and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:161

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Clinical practice guidelines have become increasingly widely used to guide quality improvement of clinical practice. Qualitative research may be a useful way to improve the quality and implementation of guidel...

    Authors: Yun-Yun Wang, Dan-Dan Liang, Cui Lu, Yue-Xian Shi, Jing Zhang, Yue Cao, Cheng Fang, Di Huang and Ying-Hui Jin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:160

    Content type: Research article

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  36. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empower...

    Authors: Ushma D. Upadhyay and Heather Lipkovich

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:159

    Content type: Technical advance

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  37. The inclusion of ‘seldom heard’ groups in health and social care research is increasingly seen as important on scientific, policy and ethical grounds. British South Asians, the largest minority ethnic group in...

    Authors: Suman Prinjha, Nasima Miah, Ebrahim Ali and Andrew Farmer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:157

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A proper application of the Delphi technique is essential for obtaining valid research results. Medical researchers regularly use Delphi studies, but reports often lack detailed information on methodology and ...

    Authors: Rebekka Veugelers, Menno I. Gaakeer, Peter Patka and Robbert Huijsman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:156

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Selection and selection bias are terms that lack consistent definitions and have varying meaning and usage across disciplines. There is also confusion in current definitions between underlying mechanisms that ...

    Authors: Jonas Björk, Anton Nilsson, Carl Bonander and Ulf Strömberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:155

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Studies of agreement examine the distance between readings made by different devices or observers measuring the same quantity. If the values generated by each device are close together most of the time then we...

    Authors: Richard A. Parker, Charles Scott, Vanda Inácio and Nathaniel T. Stevens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:154

    Content type: Research article

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  41. It is important to evaluate fidelity of delivery and engagement during feasibility trials. However, there is little guidance on how to systematically develop strategies to improve implementation if problems ar...

    Authors: Holly Walton, Aimee Spector, Anna Roberts, Morgan Williamson, Jem Bhatt, Ildiko Tombor and Susan Michie

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:153

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In meta-analyses of a binary outcome, double zero events in some studies cause a critical methodology problem. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) has been proposed as a valid statistical tool for poolin...

    Authors: Ke Ju, Lifeng Lin, Haitao Chu, Liang-Liang Cheng and Chang Xu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:152

    Content type: Research article

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  43. At times of increasing pressure on emergency departments, and the need for research into different models of service delivery, little is known about how to recruit patients for qualitative research in emergenc...

    Authors: Delyth Price, Michelle Edwards, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Alison Cooper, Freya Davies, Bridie Evans, Peter Hibbert, Thomas Hughes, Tim Rainer, Niro Siriwardena and Adrian Edwards

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:151

    Content type: Research article

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