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  1. Content type: Research article

    Although in recent years there has been a strong increase in published research on theories (e.g. realist evaluation, normalization process theory) driving and guiding process evaluations of complex interventi...

    Authors: P. Masterson-Algar, C. R. Burton and J. Rycroft-Malone

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:180

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The use of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk estimation scores in primary prevention has long been established. However, their performance still remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to explor...

    Authors: Alexandros C. Dimopoulos, Mara Nikolaidou, Francisco Félix Caballero, Worrawat Engchuan, Albert Sanchez-Niubo, Holger Arndt, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Christos Pitsavos and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:179

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The concept of “mechanism” is central to realist approaches to research, yet research teams struggle to operationalize and apply the concept in empirical research. Our large, interdisciplinary research team ha...

    Authors: James Shaw, Carolyn Steele Gray, G. Ross Baker, Jean-Louis Denis, Mylaine Breton, Jennifer Gutberg, Gaya Embuldeniya, Peter Carswell, Annette Dunham, Ann McKillop, Timothy Kenealy, Nicolette Sheridan and Walter Wodchis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:178

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Exploring factors associated with retention in randomised trials provides insight into potential threats to internal and external study validity, and may inform the development of interventions to increase ret...

    Authors: Alexandra P. Metse, Nur Ashikin Noor Hizam, John Wiggers, Paula Wye and Jenny A. Bowman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:177

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In order to accurately measure and monitor levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults, cost efficient and valid instruments are required. To date, the ...

    Authors: Claire Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:176

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the quality of data sources used to study cough and cold medication (CCM) safety in children via the Pediatric Cough and Cold Safety Surveillance System.

    Authors: Jody L. Green, Kate M. Reynolds, William Banner, G. Randall Bond, Ralph E. Kauffman, Robert B. Palmer, Ian M. Paul and Richard C. Dart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:175

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Observational studies of medical interventions or risk factors are potentially biased by unmeasured confounding. In this paper we propose a Bayesian approach by defining an informative prior for the confounder...

    Authors: Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Inbal Shofty, Milica Miočević, Maarten van Smeden and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:174

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of scientific evidence, but successful participant recruitment is critical to ensure the external and internal validity of results. This study desc...

    Authors: Rachel L. Duckham, Jamie L. Tait, Caryl A. Nowson, Kerrie M. Sanders, Dennis R. Taaffe, Keith D. Hill and Robin M. Daly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:173

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Little evidence is available on searches for non-randomized studies (NRS) in bibliographic databases within the framework of systematic reviews. For instance, it is currently unclear whether, when searching fo...

    Authors: Elke Hausner, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter, Fabian Lotz and Siw Waffenschmidt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:171

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Missing data are common in tobacco studies. It is well known that from the observed data alone, it is impossible to distinguish between missing mechanisms such as missing at random (MAR) and missing not at ran...

    Authors: Yiwen Zhang, Xianghua Luo, Chap T. Le, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia and Janet L. Thomas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:170

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Clinical trials are an essential part of evidence-based medicine. Hence, to ensure transparency and accountability in these clinical trials, policies for registration have been framed with emphasis on mandator...

    Authors: Victoria J. Serpas, Kanwal P. Raghav, Daniel M. Halperin, James Yao and Michael J. Overman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:169

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Multiple imputation (MI) is now widely used to handle missing data in longitudinal studies. Several MI techniques have been proposed to impute incomplete longitudinal covariates, including standard fully condi...

    Authors: Md Hamidul Huque, John B. Carlin, Julie A. Simpson and Katherine J. Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:168

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Workplace health interventions incorporating qualitative and quantitative components (mixed methods) within a Participatory Action Research approach can increase understanding of contextual issues ensuring rea...

    Authors: Marguerite C. Sendall, Laura K. McCosker, Alison Brodie, Melissa Hill and Phil Crane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:167

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cohorts often lack long-term survival data, and are summarized instead by initial treatment outcomes. When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohor...

    Authors: Meredith B. Brooks, Salmaan Keshavjee, Irina Gelmanova, Nataliya A. Zemlyanaya, Carole D. Mitnick and Justin Manjourides

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:166

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Studies based on high-quality linked data in developed countries show that even minor linkage errors, which occur when records of two different individuals are erroneously linked or when records belonging to t...

    Authors: Christopher T. Rentsch, Katie Harron, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Georges Reniers and Basia Zaba

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:165

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The SCL-90 and the SCL-90-R are the most applied measures regarding psychological distress. To reduce and prevent an overload to of the individuals, the Brief Symptom Inventory with 18 items (BSI-18) was devel...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Bjarne Schmalbach, Melanie Jagla, Gabriele Helga Franke and Elmar Brähler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:164

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The demand in biobanking for the collection and maintenance of biological specimens and personal data from civilians to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases has increased notably. Despit...

    Authors: Latifah Amin, Hasrizul Hashim, Zurina Mahadi and Khaidzir Ismail

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:163

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  18. Content type: Study protocol

    Recent systematic reviews and editorials suggest that many organizations that produce nutritional guideline recommendations do not adhere to internationally recognized standards set forth by the Institute of M...

    Authors: Bradley C. Johnston, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Malgorzata M. Bala, Dena Zeraatkar, Montserrat Rabassa, Claudia Valli, Catherine Marshall, Regina El Dib, Robin W. M. Vernooij, Per O. Vandvik and Gordon H. Guyatt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:162

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In Sweden, human tissue samples obtained from diagnostic and surgical procedures have for decades been routinely stored in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, form. Through linkage with nationwide registers, ...

    Authors: Jessica Carlsson, Sabina Davidsson, Jonna Fridfeldt, Francesca Giunchi, Valentina Fiano, Chiara Grasso, Renata Zelic, Lorenzo Richiardi, Ove Andrén, Andreas Pettersson, Michelangelo Fiorentino and Olof Akre

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:161

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  20. Content type: Research article

    There is a high degree of variability in assessing the preventability of adverse drug events, limiting the ability to compare rates of preventable adverse drug events across different studies. We compared thre...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Woo, Amber Cragg, Maeve E. Wickham, David Peddie, Ellen Balka, Frank Scheuermeyer, Diane Villanyi and Corinne M. Hohl

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:160

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Biological assays for the quantification of markers may suffer from a lack of sensitivity and thus from an analytical detection limit. This is the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load. Below t...

    Authors: Perrine Soret, Marta Avalos, Linda Wittkop, Daniel Commenges and Rodolphe Thiébaut

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:159

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  22. Content type: Study protocol

    Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is an important cause of disability and economic cost worldwide. There is a need for effective preventative and management strategies. Emerging studies measure a variety of outcomes re...

    Authors: Francesca Wuytack, Annelie Gutke, Britt Stuge, Siv Mørkved, Christina Olsson, Hilde Stendal Robinson, Nina K. Vøllestad, Birgitta Öberg, Lena Nilsson Wikmar, Juan Jose Saldaña Mena and Valerie Smith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:158

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) is a useful tool to investigate potential dose-response relationship between certain exposure or intervention and the outcome of interest. A large number of DRMAs have been p...

    Authors: Chang Xu, Tong-Zu Liu, Peng-Li Jia, Yu Liu, Ling Li, Liang-Liang Cheng and Xin Sun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:157

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in modern evidence-based medicine. Advantages of collecting data from more than one site are numerous, including accelerated recruitmen...

    Authors: Markus Harden and Tim Friede

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:156

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Declining participation rates are impeding health research. Little is known about factors influencing the decision to participate in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Therefore, this paper reports on th...

    Authors: Jennifer J. Ayoub, May Abiad, Michele R. Forman, Gladys Honein-AbouHaidar and Farah Naja

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:155

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are distillation of current best available evidence, but are potentially prone to bias. The bias of SRs and MAs comes from sampling bias, selection bias and wit...

    Authors: Xiao Sun, Xiaobin Zhou, Yan Yu and Haihua Liu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:154

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Ethnography has been proposed as a valuable method for understanding how implementation occurs within dynamic healthcare contexts, yet this method can be time-intensive and challenging to operationalize in pra...

    Authors: Erin P. Finley, Alexis K. Huynh, Melissa M. Farmer, Bevanne Bean-Mayberry, Tannaz Moin, Sabine M. Oishi, Jessica L. Moreau, Karen E. Dyer, Holly Jordan Lanham, Luci Leykum and Alison B. Hamilton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:153

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  28. Content type: Technical advance

    We demonstrate an application of Group-Based Trajectory Modeling (GBTM) based on the beta distribution. It is offered as an alternative to the normal distribution for modeling continuous longitudinal data that...

    Authors: Jonathan Elmer, Bobby L. Jones and Daniel S. Nagin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:152

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Participant retention strategies that minimise attrition in longitudinal cohort studies have evolved considerably in recent years. This study aimed to assess, via systematic review and meta-analysis, the effec...

    Authors: Samantha Teague, George J. Youssef, Jacqui A. Macdonald, Emma Sciberras, Adrian Shatte, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Chris Greenwood, Jennifer McIntosh, Craig A. Olsson and Delyse Hutchinson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:151

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is a research approach in which knowledge users (KUs) co-produce research. The rationale for IKT is that it leads to research that is more relevant and useful to KUs, the...

    Authors: Mary Ann O’Brien, Andrea Carson, Lisa Barbera, Melissa C. Brouwers, Craig C. Earle, Ian D. Graham, Nicole Mittmann and Eva Grunfeld

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:150

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory disorder in children. Although there are specific ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for bronchiolitis, the illness is often coded using broader diagnosis codes. This creates the po...

    Authors: Paul Walsh and Stephen J. Rothenberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:149

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Choosing a suitable sample size in qualitative research is an area of conceptual debate and practical uncertainty. That sample size principles, guidelines and tools have been developed to enable researchers to...

    Authors: Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Susan Thorpe and Terry Young

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:148

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Noncommunicable diseases represents long term medical conditions, which often puts the patients under enormous demands when following treatment, exposing them to experiencing treatment burden. The Patient Expe...

    Authors: Anne Marie Lunde Husebø, Ingvild Margreta Morken, Kristina Sundt Eriksen and Oda Karin Nordfonn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:147

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Family members are increasingly involved in the care of cancer patients, however many are not prepared for this challenging role. Intervention-based studies are valuable to inform the most appropriate and effe...

    Authors: Leila Heckel, Kate M. Gunn and Patricia M. Livingston

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:146

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Prognostic tools for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients are potentially useful for ascertaining prognosis and recommended in guidelines to facilitate streamline assessment and communication between provid...

    Authors: Tiago Gregório, Sara Pipa, Pedro Cavaleiro, Gabriel Atanásio, Inês Albuquerque, Paulo Castro Chaves and Luís Azevedo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:145

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The retinal vascular tortuosity can be a potential indicator of relevant vascular and non-vascular diseases. However, the lack of a precise and standard guide for the tortuosity evaluation hinders its use for ...

    Authors: Lucía Ramos, Jorge Novo, José Rouco, Stephanie Romeo, María D. Álvarez and Marcos Ortega

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:144

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  37. Content type: Debate

    Scoping reviews are a relatively new approach to evidence synthesis and currently there exists little guidance regarding the decision to choose between a systematic review or scoping review approach when synth...

    Authors: Zachary Munn, Micah D. J. Peters, Cindy Stern, Catalin Tufanaru, Alexa McArthur and Edoardo Aromataris

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:143

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  38. Content type: Research article

    When conducting a survival analysis, researchers might consider two broad classes of models: nonparametric models and parametric models. While nonparametric models are more flexible because they make few assum...

    Authors: Jacqueline E. Rudolph, Stephen R. Cole and Jessie K. Edwards

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:142

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Indices of inter-evaluator reliability are used in many fields such as computational linguistics, psychology, and medical science; however, the interpretation of resulting values and determination of appropria...

    Authors: Dylan T. Beckler, Zachary C. Thumser, Jonathon S. Schofield and Paul D. Marasco

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:141

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Electronic diaries are increasingly used in diverse disciplines to collect momentary data on experienced feelings, cognitions, behavior and social context in real life situations. Choices to be made for an eff...

    Authors: Karin A. M. Janssens, Elisabeth H. Bos, Judith G. M. Rosmalen, Marieke C. Wichers and Harriëtte Riese

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:140

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  41. Content type: Research article

    While red blood cell transfusion rates have declined in most Australian medical specialties, obstetric transfusion rates have instead been increasing. Obstetric transfusions are mostly linked to postpartum hae...

    Authors: Edward Jegasothy, Jillian Patterson, Deborah Randall, Tanya A. Nippita, Judy M. Simpson, David O. Irving and Jane B. Ford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:139

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Joint modeling is appropriate when one wants to predict the time to an event with covariates that are measured longitudinally and are related to the event. An underlying random effects structure links the surv...

    Authors: Jeffrey D. Long and James A. Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:138

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  43. Content type: Debate

    Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) provide aid in clinical decision making and therefore need to take into consideration human, data interactions, and cognitive functions of clinical decision makers. The...

    Authors: Dimitrios Zikos and Nailya DeLellis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:137

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Increasingly, collaborative participatory methods requiring open and honest interaction between a range of stakeholders are being used to improve health service delivery. To be successful these methodologies m...

    Authors: Ian Litchfield, Louise Bentham, Ann Hill, Richard J. McManus, Richard Lilford and Sheila Greenfield

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:136

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Successful implementation and embedding of new health care practices relies on co-ordinated, collective behaviour of individuals working within the constraints of health care settings. Normalization Process Th...

    Authors: Tracy L. Finch, Melissa Girling, Carl R. May, Frances S. Mair, Elizabeth Murray, Shaun Treweek, Elaine McColl, Ian Nicholas Steen, Clare Cook, Christopher R. Vernazza, Nicola Mackintosh, Samridh Sharma, Gaery Barbery, Jimmy Steele and Tim Rapley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:135

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  46. Content type: Research article

    As increasing numbers of dengue vaccines and therapeutics are in clinical development, standardized consensus clinical endpoint definitions are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of different interventions...

    Authors: Thomas Jaenisch, Kim Hendrickx, Martin Erpicum, Liane Agulto, Kay M. Tomashek, Walla Dempsey, João Bosco Siqueira, Morgan A. Marks, Michael P. Fay, Catherine Laughlin, Maina L’Azou, Yee-Sin Leo, Federico Narvaez, Remy Teyssou, Stephen J. Thomas, Hasitha Tissera…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:134

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Understanding and measuring implementation processes is a key challenge for implementation researchers. This study draws on Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to develop an instrument that can be applied to as...

    Authors: Tim Rapley, Melissa Girling, Frances S. Mair, Elizabeth Murray, Shaun Treweek, Elaine McColl, Ian Nicholas Steen, Carl R. May and Tracy L. Finch

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:133

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Efforts to improve maternal health are increasingly focused on improving the quality of care provided to women at health facilities, including the promotion of respectful care and eliminating mistreatment of w...

    Authors: Meghan A. Bohren, Joshua P. Vogel, Bukola Fawole, Ernest T. Maya, Thae Maung Maung, Mamadou Diouldé Baldé, Agnes A. Oyeniran, Modupe Ogunlade, Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh, Nwe Oo Mon, Boubacar Alpha Diallo, Abou Bangoura, Richard Adanu, Sihem Landoulsi, A. Metin Gülmezoglu and Özge Tunçalp

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:132

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  49. Content type: Debate

    The dominant medical and health research paradigm continues to be quantitative. While the authors sense a sea-change in opinion about mixed-method research, underpinned by two decades of highly-cited publicati...

    Authors: Frances Rapport and Jeffrey Braithwaite

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:131

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