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  1. Although frequentist paradigm has been the predominant approach to clinical studies for decades, some limitations associated with the frequentist null hypothesis significance testing have been recognized. Baye...

    Authors: Fengming Tang, Christie A. Befort, Jo Wick and Byron J. Gajewski
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:28
  2. Longitudinal observational cohort studies in cancer patients are important to move research and clinical practice forward. Continued study participation (study retention) is of importance to maintain the stati...

    Authors: Femke Jansen, Ruud H. Brakenhoff, Rob J. Baatenburg de Jong, Johannes A. Langendijk, C. René Leemans, Robert P. Takes, Chris H. J. Terhaard, Jan H. Smit and Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:27
  3. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has been increasingly adopted worldwide by Cochrane reviews, guideline developers and decision-making bodies to identify optimal treatment choices. However, NMA results are often pr...

    Authors: Yiqiao Xin, Clareece R. Nevill, Janion Nevill, Ewan Gray, Nicola J. Cooper, Naomi Bradbury and Alex J. Sutton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:26
  4. Modern designs for dose-finding studies (e.g., model-based designs such as continual reassessment method) have been shown to substantially improve the ability to determine a suitable dose for efficacy testing ...

    Authors: Sean Ewings, Geoff Saunders, Thomas Jaki and Pavel Mozgunov
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:25
  5. In preventive drug trials such as intermittent preventive treatment for malaria prevention during pregnancy (IPTp), where there is repeated treatment administration, recurrence of adverse events (AEs) is expec...

    Authors: Noel Patson, Mavuto Mukaka, Lawrence Kazembe, Marinus J. C. Eijkemans, Don Mathanga, Miriam K. Laufer and Tobias Chirwa
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:24
  6. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific world is in urgent need for new evidence on the treatment of COVID patients. The reporting quality is crucial for transparent scientific publication. Concerns of da...

    Authors: Sebastian Ziemann, Irina Paetzolt, Linda Grüßer, Mark Coburn, Rolf Rossaint and Ana Kowark
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:23
  7. Privacy preserving record linkage (PPRL) methods using Bloom filters have shown promise for use in operational linkage settings. However real-world evaluations are required to confirm their suitability in prac...

    Authors: Sean Randall, Helen Wichmann, Adrian Brown, James Boyd, Tom Eitelhuber, Alexandra Merchant and Anna Ferrante
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:22
  8. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using Genetic risk scores (GRS) as an instrumental variable (IV) have increasingly been used to control for unmeasured confounding in observational healthcare databases. Ho...

    Authors: Shabab Noor Islam, Tanvir Ahammed, Aniqua Anjum, Olayan Albalawi and Md. Jamal Uddin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:21
  9. When dealing with recurrent events in observational studies it is common to include subjects who became at risk before follow-up. This phenomenon is known as left censoring, and simply ignoring these prior epi...

    Authors: Gilma Hernández-Herrera, David Moriña and Albert Navarro
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:20
  10. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to i) assess one-year period prevalence of one, two, three or more road traffic crashes (RTCs) as an ordinal outcome and ii) identify the drivers’ characteristics as...

    Authors: Saeed Akhtar, Eisa Aldhafeeri, Farah Alshammari, Hana Jafar, Haya Malhas, Marina Botras and Noor Alnasrallah
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:19
  11. Early screening and accurately identifying Acute Appendicitis (AA) among patients with undifferentiated symptoms associated with appendicitis during their emergency visit will improve patient safety and health...

    Authors: Dai Su, Qinmengge Li, Tao Zhang, Philip Veliz, Yingchun Chen, Kevin He, Prashant Mahajan and Xingyu Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:18
  12. It is recognised that Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) populations are generally underrepresented in research studies. The key objective of this work was to develop an evidence based, practical toolkit ...

    Authors: Azhar Farooqi, Karan Jutlla, Raghu Raghavan, Andrew Wilson, Mohammud Shams Uddin, Carol Akroyd, Naina Patel, Pamela Peggy Campbell-Morris and Aaisha Tasneem Farooqi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:17
  13. Research has long found ‘J-shaped’ relationships between alcohol consumption and certain health outcomes, indicating a protective effect of moderate consumption. However, methodological limitations in most stu...

    Authors: Rachel Visontay, Matthew Sunderland, Tim Slade, Jack Wilson and Louise Mewton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:16
  14. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant influence on public mental health. Current efforts focus on alleviating the impacts of the disease on public health and the economy, wit...

    Authors: Jingyu Cui, Jingwei Lu, Yijia Weng, Grace Y. Yi and Wenqing He
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:15
  15. A major challenge of prospective cohort studies is attrition in follow-up surveys. This study investigated attrition in a prospective cohort comprised of medical graduates in China. We described status of attr...

    Authors: Mingyue Li, Ziyue Wang, Baisong Zhang, Tiantian Wei, Dan Hu and Xiaoyun Liu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:14
  16. Age-stratified serosurvey data are often used to understand spatiotemporal trends in disease incidence and exposure through estimating the Force-of-Infection (FoI). Typically, median or mean FoI estimates are ...

    Authors: Julia Ledien, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Gabriel Parra-Henao, Eliana Rodríguez-Monguí, Andrew P. Dobson, María-Gloria Basáñez and Pierre Nouvellet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:13
  17. While many studies have consistently found incomplete reporting of regression-based prediction model studies, evidence is lacking for machine learning-based prediction model studies. We aim to systematically r...

    Authors: Constanza L. Andaur Navarro, Johanna A. A. Damen, Toshihiko Takada, Steven W. J. Nijman, Paula Dhiman, Jie Ma, Gary S. Collins, Ram Bajpai, Richard D. Riley, Karel G. M. Moons and Lotty Hooft
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:12
  18. The purpose of this research was to see how the k-means algorithm can be applied to survival analysis with single events per subject for defining groups, which can then be modeled in a shared frailty model to ...

    Authors: Usha Govindarajulu and Sandeep Bedi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:11
  19. When modelling the survival distribution of a disease for which the symptomatic progression of the associated condition is insidious, it is not always clear how to measure the failure/censoring times from some...

    Authors: James H. McVittie, David B. Wolfson, Vittorio Addona and Zhaoheng Li
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:10
  20. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with multiple complex diseases. We can leverage this phenomenon, known as pleiotropy, to integrate multiple data sources in a ...

    Authors: Matthew Sutton, Pierre-Emmanuel Sugier, Therese Truong and Benoit Liquet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:9
  21. The small sample sizes available within many very preterm (VPT) longitudinal birth cohort studies mean that it is often necessary to combine and harmonise data from individual studies to increase statistical p...

    Authors: Deborah Bamber, Helen E. Collins, Charlotte Powell, Gonçalo Campos Gonçalves, Samantha Johnson, Bradley Manktelow, José Pedro Ornelas, João Correia Lopes, Artur Rocha and Elizabeth S. Draper
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:8
  22. Case-control designs are an important yet commonly misunderstood tool in the epidemiologist’s arsenal for causal inference. We reconsider classical concepts, assumptions and principles and explore when the res...

    Authors: Bas B. L. Penning de Vries and Rolf H. H. Groenwold
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:7
  23. In recent years, studies that used routinely collected data (RCD), such as electronic medical records and administrative claims, for exploring drug treatment effects, including effectiveness and safety, have b...

    Authors: Mei Liu, Wen Wang, Mingqi Wang, Qiao He, Ling Li, Guowei Li, Lin He, Kang Zou and Xin Sun
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:6
  24. Clinical trials are an essential source for advances in oncologic care, yet the enrollment rate is only 2-4%. Patients' reluctance to participate is an important barrier. This study evaluates patients' level o...

    Authors: Nethanel Asher, Ari Raphael, Ido Wolf, Sharon Pelles and Ravit Geva
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:5
  25. The Charlson and Elixhauser Comorbidity Indices are the most widely used comorbidity assessment methods in medical research. Both methods are adapted for use with the International Classification of Diseases, ...

    Authors: Pärt Prommik, Kaspar Tootsi, Toomas Saluse, Eiki Strauss, Helgi Kolk and Aare Märtson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:4
  26. The ambition of the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden (NTSRS) is to improve otorhinolaryngological care by monitoring trends in the clinical practices, complications, and outcomes of tonsil surgery. T...

    Authors: Filip Lundström, Erik Odhagen, Fredrik Alm, Claes Hemlin, Pia Nerfeldt and Ola Sunnergren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:3
  27. Ensuring fair comparisons of cancer survival statistics across population groups requires careful consideration of differential competing mortality due to other causes, and adjusting for imbalances over groups...

    Authors: Mark J. Rutherford, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Tor Åge Myklebust, Bjørn Møller and Paul C. Lambert
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:2
  28. We described the impact of different lengths of lookback window (LW), a retrospective time period to observe diagnoses in administrative data, on the prevalence and incidence of eight chronic diseases.

    Authors: Ni Gusti Ayu Nanditha, Xinzhe Dong, Taylor McLinden, Paul Sereda, Jacek Kopec, Robert S. Hogg, Julio S. G. Montaner and Viviane D. Lima
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:1
  29. In many areas of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria endemic regions have shrunk to patches of predominantly low-transmission. With a regional goal of elimination by 2030, it is important to use approp...

    Authors: Chawarat Rotejanaprasert, Nattwut Ekapirat, Prayuth Sudathip and Richard J. Maude
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:287
  30. Recruiting participants to a clinical study is a resource-intensive process with a high failure rate. The Scottish Health Research Register (SHARE) provides recruitment support service which helps researchers ...

    Authors: Wen Shi, Shobna Vasishta, Louise Dow, Daniella Cavellini, Colin Palmer, Brian McKinstry and Frank Sullivan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:286
  31. Systematic reviews are the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine. However, systematic reviews are time consuming and there is growing demand to produce evidence more quickly, while maintaining robust methods....

    Authors: Candyce Hamel, Mona Hersi, Shannon E. Kelly, Andrea C. Tricco, Sharon Straus, George Wells, Ba’ Pham and Brian Hutton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:285
  32. While machine learning (ML) algorithms may predict cardiovascular outcomes more accurately than statistical models, their result is usually not representable by a transparent formula. Hence, it is often unclea...

    Authors: Christine Wallisch, Asan Agibetov, Daniela Dunkler, Maria Haller, Matthias Samwald, Georg Dorffner and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:284
  33. Extrapolation of time-to-event data from clinical trials is commonly used in decision models for health technology assessment (HTA). The objective of this study was to assess performance of standard parametric...

    Authors: Jaclyn M. Beca, Kelvin K. W. Chan, David M. J. Naimark and Petros Pechlivanoglou
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:282
  34. Clinical trial registries can be used as sources of clinical evidence for systematic review synthesis and updating. Our aim was to evaluate methods for identifying clinical trial registrations that should be s...

    Authors: Didi Surian, Florence T. Bourgeois and Adam G. Dunn
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:281
  35. Systematic reviews have identified effective strategies for increasing postal response rates to questionnaires; however, most studies have isolated single techniques, testing the effect of each one individuall...

    Authors: Emily McBride, Hiromi Mase, Robert S. Kerrison, Laura A. V. Marlow and Jo Waller
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:280
  36. Reliable evaluations of state-level policies are essential for identifying effective policies and informing policymakers’ decisions. State-level policy evaluations commonly use a difference-in-differences (DID...

    Authors: Beth Ann Griffin, Megan S. Schuler, Elizabeth A. Stuart, Stephen Patrick, Elizabeth McNeer, Rosanna Smart, David Powell, Bradley D. Stein, Terry L. Schell and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:279

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:29

  37. Zero-inflated models are generally aimed to addressing the problem that arises from having two different sources that generate the zero values observed in a distribution. In practice, this is due to the fact t...

    Authors: David Moriña, Pedro Puig and Albert Navarro
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:277
  38. The application of advanced imaging in pediatric research trials introduces the challenge of how to effectively handle and communicate incidental and reportable findings. This challenge is amplified in underse...

    Authors: Kiley B. Vander Wyst, Micah L. Olson, Smita S. Bailey, Ana Martinez Valencia, Armando Peña, Jeffrey Miller, Mitchell Shub, Lee Seabrooke, Janiel Pimentel, Kiri Olsen, Robert B. Rosenberg and Gabriel Q. Shaibi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:275
  39. The relationship between ethnography and healthcare improvement has been the subject of methodological concern. We conducted a scoping review of ethnographic literature on healthcare improvement topics, with t...

    Authors: Georgia B. Black, Sandra van Os, Samantha Machen and Naomi J. Fulop
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:274

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:109

  40. Traditional clinical trials are conducted at investigator sites. Participants must visit healthcare facilities several times for the trial procedures. Decentralized clinical trials offer an interesting alterna...

    Authors: Soledad Muñoz-Ramírez, Begoña Escribano-López, Vallivana Rodrigo-Casares, Carlos Vergara-Hernández, Desamparados Gil-Mary, Ignacio Sorribes-Monrabal, María Garcés-Sánchez, María-Jesús Muñoz-Del-Barrio, Ana-María Albors-Fernández, María-Isabel Úbeda-Sansano, María-Victoria Planelles-Cantarino, Ester-María Largo-blanco, Eva Suárez-Vicent, Javier García-Rubio, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen, Alejandro Orrico-Sánchez…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:273
  41. Approval of novel vaccines for COVID-19 had brought hope and expectations, but not without additional challenges. One central challenge was understanding how to appropriately prioritize the use of limited supp...

    Authors: Hanisha Tatapudi, Rachita Das and Tapas K. Das
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:272
  42. Adverse effects of drugs are often identified after market introduction. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance aims to detect them as early as possible and relies on spontaneous reporting systems collecting suspici...

    Authors: Émeline Courtois, Pascale Tubert-Bitter and Ismaïl Ahmed
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:271
  43. To assure the equivalence between new clinical measurement methods and the standard methods, the four-quadrant plot and the plot’s concordance rate is used in clinical practice, along with Bland-Altman analysi...

    Authors: Mayu Hiraishi, Kensuke Tanioka and Toshio Shimokawa
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:270
  44. Sleep apnea patients on CPAP therapy exhibit differences in how they adhere to the therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of describing adherence in terms of discernible longitudinal patterns....

    Authors: Niek G. P. Den Teuling, Edwin R. van den Heuvel, Mark S. Aloia and Steffen C. Pauws
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:269
  45. Multi-state models are used in complex disease pathways to describe a process where an individual moves from one state to the next, taking into account competing states during each transition. In a multi-state...

    Authors: Nikolaos Skourlis, Michael J. Crowther, Therese M-L. Andersson and Paul C. Lambert
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:262
  46. Markov system dynamic (MSD) model has rarely been used in medical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MSD model in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) natural history.

    Authors: Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Davood Khalili, Mozhgan Seif, Ehsan Bahramali, Fereidoun Azizi and Pezhman Bagheri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:260
  47. Missing outcome data can lead to bias in the results of systematic reviews. One way to address missing outcome data is by requesting the data from the trial authors, but non-response is common. One way to pote...

    Authors: Benjamin Woolf and Phil Edwards
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:259

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