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  1. Meta-analyses are used to summarise the results of several studies on a specific research question. Standard methods for meta-analyses, namely inverse variance random effects models, have unfavourable properti...

    Authors: Moritz Felsch, Lars Beckmann, Ralf Bender, Oliver Kuss, Guido Skipka and Tim Mathes
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:319
  2. Subconcussive blast exposure during military training has been the subject of both anecdotal concerns and reports in the medical literature, but prior studies have often been small and have used inconsistent m...

    Authors: Michael J. Roy, David O. Keyser, Sheilah S. Rowe, Rene S. Hernandez, Marcia Dovel, Holland Romero, Diana Lee, Matthew Menezes, Elizabeth Magee, Danielle J. Brooks, Chen Lai, Jessica Gill, Suthee Wiri, Elizabeth Metzger, J. Kent Werner, Douglas Brungart…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:317
  3. Clinical prediction models are often not evaluated properly in specific settings or updated, for instance, with information from new markers. These key steps are needed such that models are fit for purpose and...

    Authors: M. A. E. Binuya, E. G. Engelhardt, W. Schats, M. K. Schmidt and E. W. Steyerberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:316
  4. When conducting a randomised controlled trial, there exist many different methods to allocate participants, and a vast array of evidence-based opinions on which methods are the most effective at doing this, le...

    Authors: Cydney L. Bruce, Edmund Juszczak, Reuben Ogollah, Christopher Partlett and Alan Montgomery
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:314
  5. Numerous observational studies have revealed an increased risk of death and complications with transfusion, but this observation has not been confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The “transfusion ...

    Authors: Xiaochu Yu, Zixing Wang, Lei Wang, Yuguang Huang, Yipeng Wang, Shijie Xin, Guanghua Lei, Shengxiu Zhao, Yali Chen, Xiaobo Guo, Wei Han, Xuerong Yu, Fang Xue, Peng Wu, Wentao Gu and Jingmei Jiang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:312
  6. Many dementia prediction models have been developed, but only few have been externally validated, which hinders clinical uptake and may pose a risk if models are applied to actual patients regardless. External...

    Authors: Luis H. John, Jan A. Kors, Egill A. Fridgeirsson, Jenna M. Reps and Peter R. Rijnbeek
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:311
  7. Search filters are standardised sets of search terms, with validated performance, that are designed to retrieve studies with specific characteristics. A cost–utility analysis (CUA) is the preferred type of eco...

    Authors: Wesley Hubbard, Nicola Walsh, Thomas Hudson, Andrea Heath, Jeremy Dietz and Gabriel Rogers
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:310
  8. Reliable information on the use of health services is important for health care planning, monitoring and policy. It is critical to assess the validity of the sources used for this purpose, including register a...

    Authors: Regina García-Velázquez, Valentina Kieseppä, Eero Lilja, Päivikki Koponen, Natalia Skogberg and Hannamaria Kuusio
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:309
  9. Altering cover letter information to reduce non-response bias in trauma research could inadvertently leave survey participants unprepared for potentially upsetting questions. In an unsolicited, mailed survey, ...

    Authors: Maureen Murdoch, Barbara A Clothier, Shannon Kehle-Forbes, Derek Vang and Siamak Noorbaloochi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:308
  10. Case study methodology is widely used in health research, but has had a marginal role in evaluative studies, given it is often assumed that case studies offer little for making causal inferences. We undertook ...

    Authors: Judith Green, Benjamin Hanckel, Mark Petticrew, Sara Paparini and Sara Shaw
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:307
  11. Diagnostic evidence of the accuracy of a test for identifying a target condition of interest can be estimated using systematic approaches following standardized methodologies. Statistical methods for the meta-...

    Authors: Maria N. Plana, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Silvia Fernández-García, Javier Soto, Martin Fabregate, Teresa Pérez, Marta Roqué and Javier Zamora
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:306
  12. Globorisk is a novel risk prediction model for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Globorisk is a country-specific risk prediction model that determines CVD risk for all countries. This model has two vers...

    Authors: Leila Jahangiry, Azizallah Dehghan, Mojtaba Farjam, Dagfinn Aune and Fatemeh Rezaei
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:305

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:315

  13. The U.S. Ending the HIV epidemic (EHE) plan aims to reduce annual HIV incidence by 90% by 2030, by first focusing interventions on 57 regions (EHE jurisdictions) that contributed to more than 50% of annual HIV...

    Authors: Hanisha Tatapudi and Chaitra Gopalappa
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:304
  14. Health state utility values (HSUVs) are an essential input parameter to cost-utility analysis (CUA). Systematic literature reviews (SLRs) provide summarized information for selecting utility values from an inc...

    Authors: Muchandifunga Trust Muchadeyi, Karla Hernandez-Villafuerte and Michael Schlander
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:303
  15. Process evaluations aim to understand how complex interventions bring about outcomes by examining intervention mechanisms, implementation, and context. While much attention has been paid to the methodology of ...

    Authors: Caroline French, Anna Dowrick, Nina Fudge, Hilary Pinnock and Stephanie J. C. Taylor
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:302
  16. Mediation analysis aims at estimating to what extent the effect of an exposure on an outcome is explained by a set of mediators on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. The total effect of t...

    Authors: D Zugna, M Popovic, F Fasanelli, B Heude, G Scelo and L Richiardi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:301
  17. This study illustrates the use of logistic regression and machine learning methods, specifically random forest models, in health services research by analyzing outcomes for a cohort of patients with concomitan...

    Authors: Andrea M. Austin, Niveditta Ramkumar, Barbara Gladders, Jonathan A. Barnes, Mark A. Eid, Kayla O. Moore, Mark W. Feinberg, Mark A. Creager, Marc Bonaca and Philip P. Goodney
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:300
  18. A critical step in trial design is determining the sample size and sample allocation to ensure the proposed study has sufficient power to test the hypothesis of interest: superiority, equivalence, or non-infer...

    Authors: Dapeng Hu, Chong Wang, Fangshu Ye and Annette M. O’Connor
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:299
  19. Psychometrically sound resilience outcome measures are essential to establish how health and care services or interventions can enhance the resilience of people living with dementia (PLWD) and their carers. Th...

    Authors: Gill Windle, Catherine MacLeod, Katherine Algar-Skaife, Joshua Stott, Claire Waddington, Paul M. Camic, Mary Pat Sullivan, Emilie Brotherhood and Sebastian Crutch
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:298
  20. The occurrence and timing of mycobacterial culture conversion is used as a proxy for tuberculosis treatment response. When researchers serially sample sputum during tuberculosis studies, contamination or misse...

    Authors: Samantha Malatesta, Isabelle R. Weir, Sarah E. Weber, Tara C. Bouton, Tara Carney, Danie Theron, Bronwyn Myers, C. Robert Horsburgh, Robin M. Warren, Karen R. Jacobson and Laura F. White
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:297
  21. Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly those who are older and those living with HIV. After experiencing difficulty recruiting older MSM into a...

    Authors: Alexandra L. Hernandez, Christopher Scott Weatherly, Sahai Burrowes, Jessica Lopez Jimenez, Ryan Gonzalez and Joel M. Palefsky
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:296
  22. The association structure linking the longitudinal and survival sub-models is of fundamental importance in the joint modeling framework and the choice of this structure should be made based on the clinical bac...

    Authors: Nobuhle N. Mchunu, Henry G. Mwambi, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Tarylee Reddy and Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:295
  23. Due to identifiability problems, statistical inference about treatment-by-period interactions has not been discussed for stepped wedge designs in the literature thus far. Unidirectional switch designs (USDs) g...

    Authors: Zhuozhao Zhan, Geertruida H. de Bock and Edwin R. van den Heuvel
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:294
  24. Numerous nutrition-related policy options and strategies have been proposed to tackle hypertension and other risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In this study, we developed a comparative analysis...

    Authors: Soghra Aliasgharzadeh, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Reza Mahdavi, Hossein Karimzadeh, Leila Nikniaz, Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi and Fathollah Pourali
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:293
  25. To report our recommended methodology for extracting and then confirming research uncertainties – areas where research has failed to answer a research question – derived from previously published literature du...

    Authors: D. J. C. Grindlay, T. R. C. Davis, D. Kennedy, D. Larson, D. Furniss, K. Cowan, G. Giddins, A. Jain, R. W. Trickett and A. Karantana
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:292
  26. Two common ways of assessing the clinical relevance of treatment outcomes are the minimal important difference (MID) and the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS). The former represents the smallest change i...

    Authors: Thomas Ibounig, Joona Juurakko, Tuomas Lähdeoja, Bakir O. Sumrein, Teppo L. N. Järvinen, Mika Paavola, Clare L. Ardern, Teemu Karjalainen, Simo Taimela and Lasse Rämö
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:291
  27. There are situations when we need to model multiple time-scales in survival analysis. A usual approach in this setting would involve fitting Cox or Poisson models to a time-split dataset. However, this leads t...

    Authors: Nurgul Batyrbekova, Hannah Bower, Paul W. Dickman, Anna Ravn Landtblom, Malin Hultcrantz, Robert Szulkin, Paul C. Lambert and Therese M-L. Andersson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:290
  28. A short instrument would enhance the viability of a study. Therefore, we aimed to shorten the specific module (SPD-10) of the Quality of Life Instrument for Chronic Diseases - Chronic Renal Failure (QLICD-CRF)...

    Authors: Zhengqin Xiao, Yuxi Liu, Daniel Yee-Tak Fong, Xinping Huang, Min Weng and Chonghua Wan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:289
  29. Investigations of participant retention in longitudinal health and medical research, document  strategies that work best but overlook social marketing’s capacity to influence participant retention. After apply...

    Authors: Leesa Costello, Julie Dare, Manon Dontje, Claire Lambert and Leon Straker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:288
  30. Risk prediction models are useful tools in clinical decision-making which help with risk stratification and resource allocations and may lead to a better health care for patients. AutoScore is a machine learni...

    Authors: Seyed Ehsan Saffari, Yilin Ning, Feng Xie, Bibhas Chakraborty, Victor Volovici, Roger Vaughan, Marcus Eng Hock Ong and Nan Liu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:286
  31. Meta-analyses of analgesic medicines for low back pain often rescale measures of pain intensity to use mean difference (MD) instead of standardised mean difference for pooled estimates. Although this improves ...

    Authors: Michael A. Wewege, Matthew D. Jones, Sam A. Williams, Steven J. Kamper and James H. McAuley
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:285
  32. Cox proportional hazards regression models and machine learning models are widely used for predicting the risk of dementia. Existing comparisons of these models have mostly been based on empirical datasets and...

    Authors: Meng Wang, Matthew Greenberg, Nils D. Forkert, Thierry Chekouo, Gabriel Afriyie, Zahinoor Ismail, Eric E. Smith and Tolulope T. Sajobi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:284
  33. Semi-continuous data characterized by an excessive proportion of zeros and right-skewed continuous positive values appear frequently in medical research. One example would be the pharmaceutical expenditure (PE...

    Authors: Naser Kamyari, Ali Reza Soltanian, Hossein Mahjub, Abbas Moghimbeigi and Maryam Seyedtabib
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:283
  34. There is growing enthusiasm for the application of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to clinical research and practice. However, instructions on how to develop robust high-quali...

    Authors: André Pfob, Sheng-Chieh Lu and Chris Sidey-Gibbons
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:282
  35. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most effective combination of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), a time series model, and association rule mining (ARM) techniques to identify meaningfu...

    Authors: Rachasak Somyanonthanakul, Kritsasith Warin, Watchara Amasiri, Karicha Mairiang, Chatchai Mingmalairak, Wararit Panichkitkosolkul, Krittin Silanun, Thanaruk Theeramunkong, Surapon Nitikraipot and Siriwan Suebnukarn
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:281
  36. Temporally harmonized asset indices allow the study of changes in relative wealth (mean, variance, social mobility) over time and its association with adult health and human capital in cohort studies. Conditio...

    Authors: Jithin Sam Varghese, Clive Osmond and Aryeh D. Stein
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:279
  37. Given the inherent challenges of conducting randomized phase III trials in older cancer patients, single-arm phase II trials which assess the feasibility of a treatment that has already been shown to be effect...

    Authors: Bastien Cabarrou, Eve Leconte, Patrick Sfumato, Jean-Marie Boher and Thomas Filleron
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:278
  38. The Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Chronic Headache Questionnaire (CH-QLQ) measure headache-related quality of life but are not preference-based and therefore cannot be used to generate health utilities ...

    Authors: Kamran Khan, Hema Mistry, Manjit Matharu, Chloe Norman, Stavros Petrou, Kimberley Stewart, Martin Underwood and Felix Achana
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:277
  39. The exponential growth of published systematic reviews (SRs) presents challenges for decision makers seeking to answer clinical, public health or policy questions. In 1997, an algorithm was created by Jadad et...

    Authors: C Lunny, Sai Surabi Thirugnanasampanthar, S Kanji, N Ferri, D Pieper, S Whitelaw, S Tasnim, H Nelson, EK Reid, Jia He (Janet) Zhang, Banveer Kalkat, Yuan Chi, Reema Abdoulrezzak, Di Wen Zheng, Lindy R.S. Pangka, Dian (Xin Ran) Wang…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:276
  40. Currently, the direct method is the main approach for establishment of reference interval (RI). However, only a handful of studies have described the effects of sample size on establishment of RI and estimatio...

    Authors: Chaochao Ma, Li’an Hou, Yutong Zou, Xiaoli Ma, Danchen Wang, Yingying Hu, Ailing Song, Xinqi Cheng and Ling Qiu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:275
  41. Reliable evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent diabetes-related foot ulceration is essential to inform clinical practice. Well-conducted systematic reviews that synthesise evidence from all...

    Authors: Fay Crawford, Donald J. Nicolson, Aparna E. Amanna and Marie Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:274
  42. Functional connectivity (FC) studies are often performed to discern different patterns of brain connectivity networks between healthy and patient groups. Since many neuropsychiatric disorders are related to th...

    Authors: Fatemeh Pourmotahari, Hassan Doosti, Nasrin Borumandnia, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei and Hamid Alavi Majd
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:273
  43. Our aim was to extend traditional parametric models used to extrapolate survival in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) by integrating individual-level patient data (IPD) from a clinical trial with estimates fr...

    Authors: Dieter Ayers, Shannon Cope, Kevin Towle, Ali Mojebi, Thomas Marshall and Devender Dhanda
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:272
  44. Healthcare provider profiling involves the comparison of outcomes between patients cared for by different healthcare providers. An important component of provider profiling is risk-adjustment so that providers...

    Authors: Peter C. Austin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:271
  45. Mapping spacetime disease rates can provide a more in-depth understanding of their distribution and trends. Traditional spatiotemporal kriging methods can break the constraints of geopolitical boundaries and t...

    Authors: Dai-Rong Tsai, Jing-Rong Jhuang, Shih-Yung Su, Chun-Ju Chiang, Ya-Wen Yang and Wen-Chung Lee
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:270
  46. The Nine-Questions Depression-Rating Scale (9Q) has been developed as an alternative assessment tool for assessing the severity of depressive symptoms in Thai adults. The traditional unweighted sum scoring app...

    Authors: Suttipong Kawilapat, Benchalak Maneeton, Narong Maneeton, Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Thoranin Kongsuk, Suwanna Arunpongpaisal, Jintana Leejongpermpoon, Supattra Sukhawaha and Patrinee Traisathit
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:268

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