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  1. Stepped wedge trials are an appealing and potentially powerful cluster randomized trial design. However, they are frequently implemented with a small number of clusters. Standard analysis methods for these tri...

    Authors: Kelsey L. Grantham, Jessica Kasza, Stephane Heritier, John B. Carlin and Andrew B. Forbes
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:112
  2. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Georgia B. Black, Sandra van Os, Samantha Machen and Naomi J. Fulop
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:109

    The original article was published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:274

  3. Smoking remains a leading cause of disease burden globally. Declining youth smoking prevalence is an essential feature of effective tobacco control; however, accurate data are required to assess progress. This...

    Authors: Eden M. Barrett, Raglan Maddox, Joanne Thandrayen, Emily Banks, Raymond Lovett, Christina Heris and Katherine A. Thurber
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:108
  4. Systematic reviews (SRs) are valuable resources as they address specific clinical questions by summarizing all existing relevant studies. However, finding all information to include in systematic reviews can b...

    Authors: Elena Stallings, Andrea Gaetano-Gil, Noelia Alvarez-Diaz, Ivan Solà, Jesús López-Alcalde, Daniel Molano and Javier Zamora
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:107
  5. Our study aimed to compare the reference distributions of serum creatinine and urea obtained by direct sampling technique and two indirect sampling techniques including the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and the...

    Authors: Ruohua Yan, Kun Li, Yaqi Lv, Yaguang Peng, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Wenqi Song, Xiaoxia Peng and Xin Ni
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:106
  6. Over the last years, the number of systematic reviews published is steadily increasing due to the global interest in this type of evidence synthesis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this ...

    Authors: Luísa Prada, Ana Prada, Miguel Marques Antunes, Ricardo M. Fernandes, João Costa, Joaquim J. Ferreira and Daniel Caldeira
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:105
  7. In 2007, AMSTAR (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews), a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews (SRs), was published, and it has since become one of the most widely used instruments for SR ...

    Authors: Ruzica Bojcic, Mate Todoric and Livia Puljak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:104
  8. Various statistical approaches can be used to deal with unmeasured confounding when estimating treatment effects in observational studies, each with its own pros and cons. This study aimed to compare treatment...

    Authors: Marzyeh Amini, Nikki van Leeuwen, Frank Eijkenaar, Rob van de Graaf, Noor Samuels, Robert van Oostenbrugge, Ido R. van den Wijngaard, Pieter Jan van Doormaal, Yvo B. W. E. M. Roos, Charles Majoie, Bob Roozenbeek, Diederik Dippel, James Burke and Hester F. Lingsma
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:103
  9. Early rehabilitation is the foundation for recovery for those admitted to an intensive care unit. Appropriate assessment of consciousness is needed before any rehabilitative intervention begins.

    Authors: Xiaoxiang Yan, Lingjun Xiao, Meixin Liao, Jiajian Huang, Zhijie He and Tiebin Yan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:102
  10. Describe and evaluate the methodological conduct of prognostic prediction models developed using machine learning methods in oncology.

    Authors: Paula Dhiman, Jie Ma, Constanza L. Andaur Navarro, Benjamin Speich, Garrett Bullock, Johanna A. A. Damen, Lotty Hooft, Shona Kirtley, Richard D. Riley, Ben Van Calster, Karel G. M. Moons and Gary S. Collins
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:101
  11. Internal and external validity are the most relevant components when critically appraising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for systematic reviews. However, there is no gold standard to assess external vali...

    Authors: Andres Jung, Julia Balzer, Tobias Braun and Kerstin Luedtke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:100
  12. In clinical trials, there is considerable interest in investigating whether a treatment effect is similar in all patients, or that one or more prognostic variables indicate a differential response to treatment...

    Authors: Willi Sauerbrei and Patrick Royston
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:98
  13. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the German adaptation of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). The validity of the scale as originally proposed has recently been brought in...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Bjarne Schmalbach, Joram Ronel, Ileana Schmalbach and Elisabeth Olliges
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:96
  14. Cancer survival represents one of the main indicators of interest in cancer epidemiology. However, the survival of cancer patients can be affected by several factors, such as comorbidities, that may interact w...

    Authors: Francisco Javier Rubio, Danilo Alvares, Daniel Redondo-Sanchez, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, María-José Sánchez and Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:95
  15. Over the last two decades, telephone surveys based on random digit dialing have developed considerably. At the same time, however, the proportion of the population with a cell phone has increased, whereas land...

    Authors: Noémie Soullier, Stéphane Legleye and Jean-Baptiste Richard
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:94
  16. Data from certain subgroups of clinical interest may not be presented in primary manuscripts or conference abstract presentations. In an effort to enable secondary data analyses, we propose a workflow to retri...

    Authors: Joseph J. Zhao, Nicholas L. Syn, Benjamin Kye Jyn Tan, Dominic Wei Ting Yap, Chong Boon Teo, Yiong Huak Chan and Raghav Sundar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:93
  17. Bivariate alternating recurrent event data can arise in longitudinal studies where patients with chronic diseases go through two states that occur repeatedly, e.g., care periods and break periods. However, the...

    Authors: Sandra Castro-Pearson, Aparajita Sur, Chi Hyun Lee, Chiung-Yu Huang and Xianghua Luo
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:92
  18. Tests have false positive or false negative results, which, if not properly accounted for, may provide misleading apparent prevalence estimates based on the observed rate of positive tests and not the true dis...

    Authors: Konstantinos Pateras and Polychronis Kostoulas
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:91
  19. Although standardized measures to assess substance use are available, most studies use variations of these measures making it challenging to harmonize data across studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

    Authors: Marjan Javanbakht, Johnny Lin, Amy Ragsdale, Soyeon Kim, Suzanne Siminski and Pamina Gorbach
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:90
  20. Rapid Advice Guidelines (RAG) provide decision makers with guidance to respond to public health emergencies by developing evidence-based recommendations in a short period of time with a scientific and standard...

    Authors: Qi Zhou, Qinyuan Li, Janne Estill, Qi Wang, Zijun Wang, Qianling Shi, Jingyi Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, Joseph L. Mathew, Rosalind L. Smyth, Detty Nurdiati, Zhou Fu, Hongmei Xu, Xianlan Zheng, Xiaodong Zhao, Quan Lu…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:89
  21. When performed in an observational setting, treatment effect modification analyses should account for all confounding, where possible. Often, such studies only consider confounding between the exposure and out...

    Authors: Antonia Mary Marsden, William G. Dixon, Graham Dunn and Richard Emsley
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:88
  22. In case-cohort studies a random subcohort is selected from the inception cohort and acts as the sample of controls for several outcome investigations. Analysis is conducted using only the cases and the subcoho...

    Authors: Melissa Middleton, Cattram Nguyen, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, John B. Carlin and Katherine J. Lee
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:87
  23. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections are a major cause of invasive disease (IGbsD) in young infants and cause miscarriage and stillbirths. Immunization of pregnant women against GBS in addition to intrapartu...

    Authors: Alane Izu, Gaurav Kwatra, Shabir A. Madhi and Fabio Rigat
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:85
  24. Group model building (GMB) is a participatory approach whereby diverse stakeholders can share their views about a problem to create a collective understanding of a complex system. In this article we report our...

    Authors: Yanaina Chavez-Ugalde, Zoi Toumpakari, Martin White, Frank De Vocht and Russell Jago
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:84
  25. This study shows how dynamic simulation modeling can be applied in the context of the nationwide implementation of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to inform organizational ...

    Authors: Michiel van de Ven, Maarten IJzerman, Valesca Retèl, Wim van Harten and Hendrik Koffijberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:83
  26. In the past few decades various methods have been proposed to handle missing data of clinical studies, so as to assess the robustness of primary results. Some of the methods are based on the assumption of miss...

    Authors: Shuai Wang and Haoyan Hu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:82
  27. Item response theory (IRT) methods for addressing differential item functioning (DIF) can detect group differences in responses to individual items (e.g., bias). IRT and DIF-detection methods have been used in...

    Authors: E. Nichols, J. A. Deal, B. K. Swenor, A. G. Abraham, N. M. Armstrong, K. Bandeen-Roche, M. C. Carlson, M. Griswold, F. R. Lin, T. H. Mosley, P. Y. Ramulu, N. S. Reed, A. R. Sharrett and A. L. Gross
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:81
  28. The main purposes of primary care-based pharmaceutical services (PHCPS) in Brazil are to provide free access to medicines and pharmaceutical care to patients. Several obstacles hinder achieving their goals; th...

    Authors: Tatiana Chama Borges Luz, Noemia Urruth Leão Tavares, Ana Karine Sarvel de Castro, Isabela Cristina Marques, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos and Betania Barros Cota
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:80
  29. Deprescribing literature has been increasing rapidly. Our aim was to develop and validate search filters to identify articles on deprescribing in Medline via PubMed and in Embase via

    Authors: Thomas Morel, Jérôme Nguyen-Soenen, Wade Thompson and Jean-Pascal Fournier
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:79
  30. Health technology assessment (HTA) brings together evidence from various disciplines while using explicit methods to assess the value of health technologies. In resource-constrained settings, there is a growin...

    Authors: Julia Bidonde, Jose Francisco Meneses-Echavez, Brian Asare, Lumbwe Chola, Mohamed Gad, Lieke Fleur Heupink and Elizabeth Fleur Peacocke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:78
  31. In heart data mining and machine learning, dimension reduction is needed to remove multicollinearity. Meanwhile, it has been proven to improve the interpretation of the parameter model. In addition, dimension ...

    Authors: Rezzy Eko Caraka, Rung-Ching Chen, Su-Wen Huang, Shyue-Yow Chiou, Prana Ugiana Gio and Bens Pardamean
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:114

  32. Longitudinal studies are important to understand patterns of growth in children and limited in India. It is important to identify an approach for characterising growth trajectories to distinguish between child...

    Authors: Reka Karuppusami, Belavendra Antonisamy and Prasanna S. Premkumar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:76
  33. The need to mitigate the volume of unplanned emergency department (ED) presentations is a priority for health systems globally. Current evidence on the incidence and risk factors associated with unplanned ED p...

    Authors: P. H. Dufton, M. F. Gerdtz, R. Jarden and M. Krishnasamy
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:75
  34. In 2016, international standards governing clinical research recommended that the approach to monitoring a research project should be undertaken based on risk, however it is unknown whether this approach has b...

    Authors: Renate Le Marsney, Tara Williams, Kerry Johnson, Shane George and Kristen S. Gibbons
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:74
  35. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of time-to-event outcomes are frequently published within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). However, these outcomes are handled differently across meta-an...

    Authors: Theodosia Salika, Rebecca M. Turner, David Fisher, Jayne F. Tierney and Ian R. White
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:73
  36. Systems approaches are currently being advocated and implemented to address complex challenges in Public Health. These approaches work by bringing multi-sectoral stakeholders together to develop a collective u...

    Authors: James Nobles, Jessica Wheeler, Kirsty Dunleavy-Harris, Richard Holmes, Alan Inman-Ward, Alexandra Potts, Jennifer Hall, Sabi Redwood, Russell Jago and Charlie Foster
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:72
  37. Novel screening tests used to detect a target condition are compared against either a reference standard or other existing screening methods. However, as it is not always possible to apply the reference standa...

    Authors: Emily Day, David Eldred-Evans, A. Toby Prevost, Hashim U. Ahmed and Francesca Fiorentino
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:70
  38. Adoption of innovations in the field of medicine is frequently hindered by a failure to recognize the condition targeted by the innovation. This is particularly true in cases where recognition requires integra...

    Authors: Meagan Bechel, Adam R. Pah, Stephen D. Persell, Curtis H. Weiss and Luís A. Nunes Amaral
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:69
  39. Longitudinal data analysis can improve our understanding of the influences on health trajectories across the life-course. There are a variety of statistical models which can be used, and their fitting and inte...

    Authors: Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachael A. Hughes, Kate Tilling, Diana L. Cousminer, Stefan A. Jackowski, Tim J. Cole, Alex S. F. Kwong, Zheyuan Li, Struan F. A. Grant, Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Babette S. Zemel and Deborah A. Lawlor
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:68
  40. Inconsistent responding is a type of invalid responding, which occurs on self-report surveys and threatens the reliability and validity of study results. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of identi...

    Authors: Christina Schell, Alexandra Godinho and John A. Cunningham
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:67
  41. The literature on qualitative data analysis mostly concerns analyses pertaining to an individual research question and the organization of data within that research question. Few authors have written about the...

    Authors: Joanna E. M. Sale
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:66
  42. Recruitment into clinical trials is challenging and there is a lack of evidence on effective recruitment strategies. Personalisation of invitation letters is a potentially pragmatic and feasible way of increas...

    Authors: Ella Thiblin, Joanne Woodford, Mattias Öhman and Louise von Essen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:65
  43. With advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment, women with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) are living longer, increasing the number of patients receiving post-treatment follow-up care. Best-practice survivor...

    Authors: Devesh Oberoi, Cynthia Kwok, Yong Li, Cindy Railton, Susan Horsman, Kathleen Reynolds, Anil A. Joy, Karen Marie King, Sasha Michelle Lupichuk, Michael Speca, Nicole Culos-Reed, Linda E. Carlson and Janine Giese-Davis
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:64
  44. Online surveys have triggered a heated debate regarding their scientific validity. Many authors have adopted weighting methods to enhance the quality of online survey findings, while others did not find an adv...

    Authors: Chadia Haddad, Hala Sacre, Rony M. Zeenny, Aline Hajj, Marwan Akel, Katia Iskandar and Pascale Salameh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:63
  45. Recent advances in biotechnology enable the acquisition of high-dimensional data on individuals, posing challenges for prediction models which traditionally use covariates such as clinical patient characterist...

    Authors: Mariella Gregorich, Federico Melograna, Martina Sunqvist, Stefan Michiels, Kristel Van Steen and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:62
  46. To provide empirically based guidance for substituting partner number categories in large MSM surveys with mean numbers of sexual and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) partners in a secondary analysis of surve...

    Authors: Ana Mendez-Lopez, Ford Hickson, Klaus Jansen, Nathan Lachowsky, Fiona Burns, Cinta Folch, Annie Velter, Peter Weatherburn, Ulrich Marcus, Ursula von Rüden, Massimo Mirandola, Lorenzo Gios, Jamie Frankis, David J. Brennan and Axel J. Schmidt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:59

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