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  1. Content type: Research article

    The reporting of randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts is of vital importance. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between structure format and RCT abstracts’ quality o...

    Authors: Fang Hua, Tanya Walsh, Anne-Marie Glenny and Helen Worthington

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:6

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  2. Content type: Correspondence

    Systematic reviews have been considered as the pillar on which evidence-based healthcare rests. Systematic review methodology has evolved and been modified over the years to accommodate the range of questions ...

    Authors: Zachary Munn, Cindy Stern, Edoardo Aromataris, Craig Lockwood and Zoe Jordan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:5

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Despite the frequent use of self-controlled methods in pharmacoepidemiological studies, the factors that may bias the estimates from these methods have not been adequately compared in real-world settings. Here...

    Authors: Yoshinori Takeuchi, Tomohiro Shinozaki and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:4

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre...

    Authors: Marie Koitsalu, Martin Eklund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg and Yvonne Brandberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:3

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  5. Content type: Technical advance

    Many clinical trials focus on the comparison of the treatment effect between two or more groups concerning a rarely occurring event. In this situation, showing a relevant effect with an acceptable power requir...

    Authors: Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Meinhard Kieser and Geraldine Rauch

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:2

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited treatment options in patients with advanced stage disease and early detection of HCC through surveillance programs is a key component towards reducing mortality. The ...

    Authors: Nabihah Tayob, Peter Richardson, Donna L. White, Xiaoying Yu, Jessica A. Davila, Fasiha Kanwal, Ziding Feng and Hashem B. El-Serag

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:1

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Article summaries’ information and structure may influence researchers/clinicians’ decisions to conduct deeper full-text analyses. Specifically, abstracts of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MA) sho...

    Authors: Francisco Gómez-García, Juan Ruano, Macarena Aguilar-Luque, Patricia Alcalde-Mellado, Jesús Gay-Mimbrera, José Luis Hernández-Romero, Juan Luis Sanz-Cabanillas, Beatriz Maestre-López, Marcelino González-Padilla, Pedro J. Carmona-Fernández, Antonio Vélez García-Nieto and Beatriz Isla-Tejera

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:180

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Evidence shows that research abstracts are commonly inconsistent with their corresponding full reports, and may mislead readers. In this scoping review, which is part of our series on the state of reporting of...

    Authors: Guowei Li, Luciana P. F. Abbade, Ikunna Nwosu, Yanling Jin, Alvin Leenus, Muhammad Maaz, Mei Wang, Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Nitika Sanger, Bianca Bantoto, Candice Luo, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Yaping Chang, Guangwen Sun…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:181

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Different confounder adjustment strategies were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) in case-control study, i.e. how many confounders original studies adjusted and what the variables are. This secondary data ana...

    Authors: Tianyi Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Zehao Wu, Ying Zhang, Guoshuang Feng, Siyu Cai, Yaqi Lv and Xiaoxia Peng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:179

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Confounders can produce spurious associations between exposure and outcome in observational studies. For majority of epidemiologists, adjusting for confounders using logistic regression model is their habitual...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Yu, Hongkai Li, Xiaoru Sun, Ping Su, Tingting Wang, Yi Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Yanxun Liu and Fuzhong Xue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:177

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely t...

    Authors: Patricia J. Lucas, Jenny Ingram, Niamh M. Redmond, Christie Cabral, Sophie L. Turnbull and Alastair D. Hay

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:175

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews may provide less biased evidence than narrative reviews because they observe a strict methodology, similarly to primary studies. Hence, for clinical research questions, systematic reviews sh...

    Authors: Clovis Mariano Faggion Jr, Nikolaos P. Bakas and Jason Wasiak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:176

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are becoming increasingly important methods to summarize published research. Studies of ophthalmology may present additional challenges because of their potentially complex...

    Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Reem Farwana, Katharine Whitehurst, Alex Fowler and Riaz Agha

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:178

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Effectiveness of interventions in pragmatic trials may not translate directly into population impact, because of limited uptake by clinicians and/or the public. Uptake of an intervention is influenced by a num...

    Authors: Katy J. L. Bell, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar and Paul Glasziou

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:174

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Personalized healthcare relies on the identification of factors explaining why individuals respond differently to the same intervention. Analyses identifying such factors, so called predictors and moderators, ...

    Authors: Ralph van Hoorn, Marcia Tummers, Andrew Booth, Ansgar Gerhardus, Eva Rehfuess, Daniel Hind, Patrick M. Bossuyt, Vivian Welch, Thomas P. A. Debray, Martin Underwood, Pim Cuijpers, Helena Kraemer, Gert Jan van der Wilt and Wietkse Kievit

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:173

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Prediction models and prognostic scores have been increasingly popular in both clinical practice and clinical research settings, for example to aid in risk-based decision making or control for confounding. In ...

    Authors: Sarah R. Haile, Beniamino Guerra, Joan B. Soriano and Milo A. Puhan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:172

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:21

  17. Content type: Research article

    Parametric distributions based on individual patient data can be used to represent both stochastic and parameter uncertainty. Although general guidance is available on how parameter uncertainty should be accou...

    Authors: Koen Degeling, Maarten J. IJzerman, Miriam Koopman and Hendrik Koffijberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:170

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns amon...

    Authors: Alicja M. Baczynska, Sarah C. Shaw, Harnish P. Patel, Avan A. Sayer and Helen C. Roberts

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:167

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Diagnostic tests are performed in a subset of the population who are at higher risk, resulting in undiagnosed cases among those who do not receive the test. This poses a challenge for estimating the prevalence...

    Authors: Nanhua Zhang, Si Cheng, Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A. Florin and Maurizio Macaluso

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:168

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Summary of findings tables in systematic reviews are highly informative but require epidemiological training to be interpreted correctly. The usage of fishbone diagrams as graphical displays could offer resear...

    Authors: Gerald Gartlehner, Marie-Therese Schultes, Viktoria Titscher, Laura C. Morgan, Georgiy V. Bobashev, Peyton Williams and Suzanne L. West

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:169

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The variable “small for gestational age,” frequently defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile in a gestational age and sex-normalized population, is nowadays generally perceived as a more adequate mea...

    Authors: Geneviève Lefebvre and Mariia Samoilenko

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:165

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:17

  22. Content type: Research article

    The bias caused by drop-out is an important factor in large population-based epidemiological studies. Many studies account for it by weighting their longitudinal data, but to date there is no detailed final ap...

    Authors: Steffen C. E. Schmidt and Alexander Woll

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:164

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Clinical studies in children are necessary yet conducting multiple visits at study centers remains challenging. The success of “care-at-home” initiatives and remote clinical trials suggests their potential to ...

    Authors: Belinda von Niederhäusern, Ramon Saccilotto, Sabine Schädelin, Victoria Ziesenitz, Pascal Benkert, Marie-Luise Decker, Anya Hammann, Julia Bielicki, Marc Pfister and Christiane Pauli-Magnus

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:163

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  24. Content type: Research article

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for thes...

    Authors: Susan E. Slaughter, Gabrielle L. Zimmermann, Megan Nuspl, Heather M. Hanson, Lauren Albrecht, Rosmin Esmail, Khara Sauro, Amanda S. Newton, Maoliosa Donald, Michele P. Dyson, Denise Thomson and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:161

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Missing data may seriously compromise inferences from randomised clinical trials, especially if missing data are not handled appropriately. The potential bias due to missing data depends on the mechanism causi...

    Authors: Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud, Jørn Wetterslev and Per Winkel

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:162

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The Marginal Structural Cox Model (Cox-MSM), an alternative approach to handle time-dependent confounder, was introduced for survival analysis and applied to estimate the joint causal effect of two time-depend...

    Authors: Clovis Lusivika-Nzinga, Hana Selinger-Leneman, Sophie Grabar, Dominique Costagliola and Fabrice Carrat

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:160

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  27. Content type: Technical advance

    Randomization is considered to be a key feature to protect against bias in randomized clinical trials. Randomization induces comparability with respect to known and unknown covariates, mitigates selection bias...

    Authors: Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Diane Uschner, William F. Rosenberger and Nicole Heussen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:159

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  28. Content type: Research article

    In healthcare research, outcomes with skewed probability distributions are common. Sample size calculations for such outcomes are typically based on estimates on a transformed scale (e.g. log) which may someti...

    Authors: Aidan G. O’Keeffe, Gareth Ambler and Julie A. Barber

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:157

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a commonly used scale to measure severity of alcohol consumption that contains an item asking if anyone has expressed concern about your drinking or sug...

    Authors: John A. Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho, Vladyslav Kushnir and Nicolas Bertholet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:158

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The follow-up rate, a standard index of the completeness of follow-up, is important for assessing the validity of a cohort study. A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the “Percentage Method”, def...

    Authors: Xiaonan Xue, Ilir Agalliu, Mimi Y. Kim, Tao Wang, Juan Lin, Reza Ghavamian and Howard D. Strickler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:155

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Regulations, study design complexity and amounts of collected and shared data in clinical trials render efficient data handling procedures inevitable. Recent research suggests that electronic data capture can ...

    Authors: Robert Fleischmann, Anne-Marie Decker, Antje Kraft, Knut Mai and Sein Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:153

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Exploratory preclinical, as well as clinical trials, may involve a small number of patients, making it difficult to calculate and analyze the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, especially if the PK parameters sh...

    Authors: Sudeep Pradhan, Byungjeong Song, Jaeyeon Lee, Jung-woo Chae, Kyung Im Kim, Hyun-moon Back, Nayoung Han, Kwang-il Kwon and Hwi-yeol Yun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:154

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where ‘requesters’ (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for ‘workers.’ MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of...

    Authors: John A. Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho and Vladyslav Kushnir

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:156

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Our objective was to assess the frequency of data extraction errors and its potential impact on results in systematic reviews. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different extraction methods, reviewer cha...

    Authors: Tim Mathes, Pauline Klaßen and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:152

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  35. Content type: Research article

    An up-to-date systematic review is important for researchers to decide whether to embark on new research or continue supporting ongoing studies. The aim of this study is to examine the time taken between the l...

    Authors: Wilson W. S. Tam, Kenneth K. H. Lo, Parames Khalechelvam, Joey Seah and Shawn Y. S. Goh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:151

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  36. Content type: Research article

    There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different ...

    Authors: S. R. Zeissig, V. Weyer-Elberich, K. Emrich, H. Binder, S. Fischbeck, B. H. Imruck, P. Friedrich-Mai, M. E. Beutel and M. Blettner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:150

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  37. Content type: Research article

    It is important to quantify the dose response for a drug in phase 2a clinical trials so the optimal doses can then be selected for subsequent late phase trials. In a phase 2a clinical trial of new lead drug be...

    Authors: Feng Liu, Stephen J. Walters and Steven A. Julious

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:149

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  38. Content type: Research Article

    The use of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as an endpoint in cancer clinical trials is growing rapidly. Hence, research into the statistical approaches used to analyze HRQoL data is of major importance,...

    Authors: Antoine Barbieri, Jean Peyhardi, Thierry Conroy, Sophie Gourgou, Christian Lavergne and Caroline Mollevi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:148

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  39. Content type: Research article

    It is challenging for current statistical models to predict clinical progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) because of the involvement of multi-domains and longitudinal data.

    Authors: Ming Wang, Zheng Li, Eun Young Lee, Mechelle M. Lewis, Lijun Zhang, Nicholas W. Sterling, Daymond Wagner, Paul Eslinger, Guangwei Du and Xuemei Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:147

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Several statistical approaches have been proposed to assess and correct for exposure measurement error. We aimed to provide a critical overview of the most common approaches used in nutritional epidemiology.

    Authors: Derrick A. Bennett, Denise Landry, Julian Little and Cosetta Minelli

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:146

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The reproducibility of research is essential to rigorous science, yet significant concerns of the reliability and verifiability of biomedical research have been recently highlighted. Ongoing efforts across sev...

    Authors: Leslie D. McIntosh, Anthony Juehne, Cynthia R. H. Vitale, Xiaoyan Liu, Rosalia Alcoser, J. Christian Lukas and Bradley Evanoff

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:143

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The clinical research enterprise is not producing the evidence decision makers arguably need in a timely and cost effective manner; research currently involves the use of labor-intensive parallel systems that ...

    Authors: Kevin P. Weinfurt, Adrian F. Hernandez, Gloria D. Coronado, Lynn L. DeBar, Laura M. Dember, Beverly B. Green, Patrick J. Heagerty, Susan S. Huang, Kathryn T. James, Jeffrey G. Jarvik, Eric B. Larson, Vincent Mor, Richard Platt, Gary E. Rosenthal, Edward J. Septimus, Gregory E. Simon…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:144

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The requirement to obtain written informed consent may undermine the potential of pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) to improve evidence-based care. This requirement could compromise trials statistic...

    Authors: Rafael Dal-Ré, Antonio J. Carcas, Xavier Carné and David Wendler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:145

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  44. Content type: Research article

    We sought to understand the main ethical considerations when conducting clinical trials in the prehospital ambulance based setting.

    Authors: Stephanie Armstrong, Adele Langlois, Despina Laparidou, Mark Dixon, Jason P. Appleton, Philip M. Bath, Helen Snooks and A. Niroshan Siriwardena

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:142

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The ACE-III, a gold standard for screening cognitive impairment, is restricted by language and culture, with no uniform set of guidelines for its adaptation. To develop guidelines a compilation of all the adap...

    Authors: Nadine Mirza, Maria Panagioti, Muhammad Wali Waheed and Waquas Waheed

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:141

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  46. Content type: Correspondence

    Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is form...

    Authors: A.P. Bikker, H. Atherton, H. Brant, T. Porqueddu, J.L. Campbell, A. Gibson, B. McKinstry, C. Salisbury and S. Ziebland

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:139

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Although there has been growing research on the burden of treatment, the current state of evidence on measuring this concept is unknown. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of the current state of...

    Authors: Adem Sav, Asiyeh Salehi, Frances S. Mair and Sara S. McMillan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:140

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  48. Content type: Debate

    The goal of medical research is to develop interventions that are in some sense superior, with respect to patient outcome, to interventions currently in use. Similarly, the goal of research in methodological c...

    Authors: Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Rory Wilson and Alexander Hapfelmeier

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2017 17:138

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