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  1. Models, theories, and frameworks (MTFs) provide the foundation for a cumulative science of implementation, reflecting a shared, evolving understanding of various facets of implementation. One under-represented...

    Authors: Justin Presseau, Danielle Kasperavicius, Isabel Braganca Rodrigues, Jessica Braimoh, Andrea Chambers, Cole Etherington, Lora Giangregorio, Jenna C. Gibbs, Anik Giguere, Ian D. Graham, Olena Hankivsky, Alison M. Hoens, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Christine Kelly, Julia E. Moore, Matteo Ponzano…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:212
  2. Prediction models for time-to-event outcomes are commonly used in biomedical research to obtain subject-specific probabilities that aid in making important clinical care decisions. There are several regression...

    Authors: Krithika Suresh, Cameron Severn and Debashis Ghosh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:207
  3. Variable selection for regression models plays a key role in the analysis of biomedical data. However, inference after selection is not covered by classical statistical frequentist theory, which assumes a fixe...

    Authors: Michael Kammer, Daniela Dunkler, Stefan Michiels and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:206
  4. Randomized test-treatment studies aim to evaluate the clinical utility of diagnostic tests by providing evidence on their impact on patient health. However, the sample size calculation is affected by several f...

    Authors: Amra Hot, Norbert Benda, Patrick M. Bossuyt, Oke Gerke, Werner Vach and Antonia Zapf
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:205
  5. When designing a noninferiority (NI) study one of the most important steps is to set the noninferiority (NI) limit. The NI limit is an acceptable loss of efficacy for a new investigative treatment compared to ...

    Authors: Enass M. Duro, Steven A. Julious and Shijie Ren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:204
  6. Collecting new data from cross-sectional/survey and cohort observational study designs can be expensive and time-consuming. Nested (hierarchically cocooned within an existing parent study) and/or Multipart (≥ ...

    Authors: C. Christina Mehta, Kimberly S. Hagen, Lauren F. Collins, Renee’ H. Moore and Ighovwerha Ofotokun
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:203
  7. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis has become a popular design to evaluate the effects of health interventions. However, the most common formulation for ITS, the linear segmented regression, is not always ...

    Authors: Daisuke Yoneoka, Takayuki Kawashima, Yuta Tanoue, Shuhei Nomura and Akifumi Eguchi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:202
  8. In recent years there is increasing interest in modeling the effect of early longitudinal biomarker data on future time-to-event or other outcomes. Sometimes investigators are also interested in knowing whethe...

    Authors: Feng Gao, Jingqin Luo, Jingxia Liu, Fei Wan, Guoqiao Wang, Mae Gordon and Chengjie Xiong
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:201
  9. We compared six commonly used logistic regression methods for accommodating missing risk factor data from multiple heterogeneous cohorts, in which some cohorts do not collect some risk factors at all, and deve...

    Authors: Matthias Neumair, Michael W. Kattan, Stephen J. Freedland, Alexander Haese, Lourdes Guerrios-Rivera, Amanda M. De Hoedt, Michael A. Liss, Robin J. Leach, Stephen A. Boorjian, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Cedric Poyet, Karim Saba, Kathleen Herkommer, Valentin H. Meissner, Andrew J. Vickers and Donna P. Ankerst
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:200
  10. Studying the relationship between unemployment and health raises many methodological challenges. In the current study, the aim was to evaluate the sensitivity of estimates based on different ways of measuring ...

    Authors: Fredrik Norström and Anne Hammarström
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:199
  11. The decision to initiate invasive long-term ventilation for a child with complex medical needs can be extremely challenging. TechChild is a research programme that aims to explore the liminal space between ini...

    Authors: Mary Brigid Quirke, Denise Alexander, Kate Masterson, Jo Greene, Cathal Walsh, Piet Leroy, Jay Berry, Lee Polikoff and Maria Brenner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:198
  12. Linkage of public healthcare data provides powerful resources for studying from a comprehensive view of quality of care than information for a single administrative database. It is believed that positive patie...

    Authors: Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Chin-Man Poon, Annie Wai-Ling Cheung, Frank Youhua Chen and Eng-Kiong Yeoh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:197
  13. Multiple imputation is frequently used to address missing data when conducting statistical analyses. There is a paucity of research into the performance of multiple imputation when the prevalence of missing da...

    Authors: Peter C. Austin and Stef van Buuren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:196
  14. We aimed to investigate factors related to the 90-day poor prognosis (mRS≥3) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, construct 90-day poor prognosis prediction models for patients wit...

    Authors: Si-Ding Chen, Jia You, Xiao-Meng Yang, Hong-Qiu Gu, Xin-Ying Huang, Huan Liu, Jian-Feng Feng, Yong Jiang and Yong-jun Wang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:195
  15. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) is increasingly used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar patterns. In this paper, we use simulated and real-life data to illustrate that GBTM is susceptibl...

    Authors: Miceline Mésidor, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Jennifer O’Loughlin and Marie-Pierre Sylvestre
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:194
  16. Meta-analysis is a central method for quality evidence generation. In particular, meta-analysis is gaining speedy momentum in the growing world of quantitative information. There are several software applicati...

    Authors: Safoora Masoumi and Saeid Shahraz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:193
  17. Meta-analyses of test accuracy studies may provide estimates that are highly improbable in clinical practice. Tailored meta-analysis produces plausible estimates for the accuracy of a test within a specific se...

    Authors: Karoline Freeman, Brian H. Willis, Ronan Ryan, Sian Taylor-Phillips and Aileen Clarke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:192
  18. The quality of communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients affects health outcomes. Different coding systems have been developed to unravel the interaction. Most schemes consist of prede...

    Authors: Inge Stortenbeker, Lisa Salm, Tim olde Hartman, Wyke Stommel, Enny Das and Sandra van Dulmen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:191
  19. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) using observational databases has been suggested to obtain personalized evidence of treatment effectiveness. Inferential difficulties remain using traditional CER appro...

    Authors: John M. Brooks, Cole G. Chapman, Sarah B. Floyd, Brian K. Chen, Charles A. Thigpen and Michael Kissenberth
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:190
  20. Methods for developing national recommendations vary widely. The successful adoption of new guidance into routine practice is dependent on buy-in from the clinicians delivering day-to-day patient care and must...

    Authors: John C. Hardman, Kevin Harrington, Tom Roques, Sanjai Sood, Jemy Jose, Shane Lester, Paul Pracy, Ricard Simo, Costa Repanos, Frank Stafford, Chris Jennings, Stuart C. Winter, Hugh Wheatly, Jarrod Homer, B. Nirmal Kumar and Vinidh Paleri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:189
  21. The individual data collected throughout patient follow-up constitute crucial information for assessing the risk of a clinical event, and eventually for adapting a therapeutic strategy. Joint models and landma...

    Authors: Anthony Devaux, Robin Genuer, Karine Peres and Cécile Proust-Lima
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:188
  22. Due to contradictory results in current research, whether age at menopause is increasing or decreasing in Western countries remains an open question, yet worth studying as later ages at menopause are likely to...

    Authors: Rui Martins, Bruno de Sousa, Thomas Kneib, Maike Hohberg, Nadja Klein, Elisa Duarte and Vítor Rodrigues
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:187
  23. Increasingly in network meta-analysis (NMA), there is a need to incorporate non-randomised evidence to estimate relative treatment effects, and in particular in cases with limited randomised evidence, sometime...

    Authors: Janharpreet Singh, Sandro Gsteiger, Lorna Wheaton, Richard D. Riley, Keith R. Abrams, Clare L. Gillies and Sylwia Bujkiewicz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:186
  24. The purpose of this study is to describe and assess a remote height and weight protocol that was developed for an ongoing trial conducted during the SARS COV-2 pandemic.

    Authors: Bethany Forseth, Ann M. Davis, Dana M. Bakula, Megan Murray, Kelsey Dean, Rebecca E. Swinburne Romine and Kandace Fleming
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:185
  25. Systematic reviews can apply the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II tool to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for treating low back pain (LBP); however, when app...

    Authors: Silvia Gianola, Silvia Bargeri, Michela Cinquini, Valerio Iannicelli, Roberto Meroni and Greta Castellini
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:184
  26. Our study aimed to identify predictors as well as develop machine learning (ML) models to predict the risk of 30-day mortality in patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE).

    Authors: Liwei Peng, Chi Peng, Fan Yang, Jian Wang, Wei Zuo, Chao Cheng, Zilong Mao, Zhichao Jin and Weixin Li
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:183
  27. Discharge medical notes written by physicians contain important information about the health condition of patients. Many deep learning algorithms have been successfully applied to extract important information...

    Authors: Hongxia Lu, Louis Ehwerhemuepha and Cyril Rakovski
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:181
  28. The need to engage adults, age 65 and older, in clinical trials of conditions typical in older populations, (e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia) is exponentially inc...

    Authors: Harriet Fisher, Sondra Zabar, Joshua Chodosh, Aisha Langford, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Scott Sherman and Lisa Altshuler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:180
  29. To optimize colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and surveillance, information regarding the time-dependent risk of advanced adenomas (AA) to develop into CRC is crucial. However, since AA are removed after diagn...

    Authors: Eddymurphy U. Akwiwu, Thomas Klausch, Henriette C. Jodal, Beatriz Carvalho, Magnus Løberg, Mette Kalager, Johannes Berkhof and Veerle M.H. Coupé
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:179
  30. Implementation science in healthcare aims to understand how to get evidence into practice. Once this is achieved in one setting, it becomes increasingly difficult to replicate elsewhere. The problem is often a...

    Authors: Mitchell N. Sarkies, Emilie Francis-Auton, Janet C. Long, Chiara Pomare, Rebecca Hardwick and Jeffrey Braithwaite
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:178
  31. Accurate measurement of trajectories in longitudinal studies, considered the gold standard method for tracking functional growth during adolescence, decline in aging, and change after head injury, is subject t...

    Authors: Edith V. Sullivan, Wesley K. Thompson, Ty Brumback, Devin Prouty, Susan F. Tapert, Sandra A. Brown, Michael D. De Bellis, Kate B. Nooner, Fiona C. Baker, Ian M. Colrain, Duncan B. Clark, Bonnie J. Nagel, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:177
  32. A lack of available data and statistical code being published alongside journal articles provides a significant barrier to open scientific discourse, and reproducibility of research. Information governance res...

    Authors: Aiden Smith, Paul C. Lambert and Mark J. Rutherford
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:176
  33. Normalization process theory (NPT) has been widely used to better understand how new interventions are implemented and embedded. The NoMAD (Normalization Measurement Development questionnaire) is a 23-item NPT...

    Authors: Larkin Lamarche, Rebecca E. Clark, Fiona Parascandalo and Dee Mangin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:175
  34. Sustainable Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virological suppression is crucial to achieving the Joint United Nations Programme of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 95–95-95 treatment targets to reduce the risk of onward HI...

    Authors: Adenike O. Soogun, Ayesha B. M. Kharsany, Temesgen Zewotir, Delia North and Ropo Ebenezer Ogunsakin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:174
  35. The concept of standard of care (SoC) treatment is commonly utilized in clinical trials. However, in a setting of an emergent disease, such as COVID-19, where there is no established effective treatment, it is...

    Authors: Mahir Fidahic, Danijela Nujic, Marta Civljak, Renata Runjic, Filipa Markotic, Marin Vidak and Livia Puljak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:173
  36. The NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study is frequently cited in support of alteplase for acute ischemic stroke within 3 h of symptom onset. Multiple post-hoc reanalyses of this trial have been published to adjust for a ba...

    Authors: Ravi Garg and Steffen Mickenautsch
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:172
  37. To summarize the up-to-date empirical evidence on trial-level characteristics of randomized controlled trials associated with treatment effect estimates.

    Authors: Huan Wang, Jinlu Song, Yali Lin, Wenjie Dai, Yinyan Gao, Lang Qin, Yancong Chen, Wilson Tam, Irene XY Wu and Vincent CH Chung
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:171
  38. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and debilitating mental disorder always considered one of the recurrent psychiatric diseases. This study aimed to use penalized count regression models to determine factors ...

    Authors: Mahya Arayeshgari, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Ali Ghaleiha, Jalal Poorolajal and Leili Tapak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:170
  39. In binary logistic regression data are ‘separable’ if there exists a linear combination of explanatory variables which perfectly predicts the observed outcome, leading to non-existence of some of the maximum l...

    Authors: Angelika Geroldinger, Rok Blagus, Helen Ogden and Georg Heinze
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:168
  40. Machine learning and automation are increasingly used to make the evidence synthesis process faster and more responsive to policymakers’ needs. In systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), ris...

    Authors: Patricia Sofia Jacobsen Jardim, Christopher James Rose, Heather Melanie Ames, Jose Francisco Meneses Echavez, Stijn Van de Velde and Ashley Elizabeth Muller
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:167
  41. Real-life data consist of exhaustive data which are not subject to selection bias. These data enable to study drug-safety profiles but are underused because of their temporality, necessitating complex models (...

    Authors: P. Sabatier, M. Wack, J. Pouchot, N. Danchin and AS. Jannot
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:166
  42. Network analysis, a technique for describing relationships, can provide insights into patterns of co-occurring chronic health conditions. The effect that co-occurrence measurement has on disease network struct...

    Authors: Barret A. Monchka, Carson K. Leung, Nathan C. Nickel and Lisa M. Lix
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:165
  43. There is increasing interest in the development and use of clinical prediction models, but a lack of evidence-supported guidance on the merits of different modelling approaches. This is especially true for tim...

    Authors: Alana R. Cuthbert, Lynne C. Giles, Gary Glonek, Lisa M. Kalisch Ellett and Nicole L. Pratt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:164
  44. Development of complex interventions for management of chronic conditions has become increasingly common, with guidance now provided. Fidelity (whether the intervention is designed, delivered and received as i...

    Authors: Steed L., Wileman V., Sohanpal R., Kelly MJ., Pinnock H. and Taylor SJC
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:163
  45. Recent international health events have led to an increased proliferation of remotely delivered health interventions. Even with the pandemic seemingly coming under control, the experiences of the past year hav...

    Authors: Daniel I. Rhon, Julie M. Fritz, Robert D. Kerns, Donald D. McGeary, Brian C. Coleman, Shawn Farrokhi, Diana J. Burgess, Christine M. Goertz, Stephanie L. Taylor and Tammy Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2022 22:161

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