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  1. We propose a compartmental model for investigating smoking dynamics in an Italian region (Tuscany). Calibrating the model on local data from 1993 to 2019, we estimate the probabilities of starting and quitting...

    Authors: Alessio Lachi, Cecilia Viscardi, Giulia Cereda, Giulia Carreras and Michela Baccini
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:148
  2. Decision analytic models and meta-analyses often rely on survival probabilities that are digitized from published Kaplan–Meier (KM) curves. However, manually extracting these probabilities from KM curves is ti...

    Authors: Jasper Zhongyuan Zhang, Juan David Rios, Tilemanchos Pechlivanoglou, Alan Yang, Qiyue Zhang, Dimitrios Deris, Ian Cromwell and Petros Pechlivanoglou
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:147
  3. Risk prediction models are routinely used to assist in clinical decision making. A small sample size for model development can compromise model performance when the model is applied to new patients. For binary...

    Authors: Menelaos Pavlou, Gareth Ambler, Chen Qu, Shaun R. Seaman, Ian R. White and Rumana Z. Omar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:146
  4. In binary classification for clinical studies, an imbalanced distribution of cases to classes and an extreme association level between the binary dependent variable and a subset of independent variables can cr...

    Authors: Georgios Charizanos, Haydar Demirhan and Duygu İçen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:145
  5. Data is increasingly used for improvement and research in public health, especially administrative data such as that collected in electronic health records. Patients enter and exit these typically open-cohort ...

    Authors: Neil Cockburn, Ben Hammond, Illin Gani, Samuel Cusworth, Aditya Acharya, Krishna Gokhale, Rasiah Thayakaran, Francesca Crowe, Sonica Minhas, William Parry Smith, Beck Taylor, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar and Joht Singh Chandan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:144
  6. Integrating complex interventions within healthcare settings can be challenging. Mentoring can be embedded within a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to upskill and support those delivering the intervention. T...

    Authors: Blanca De Dios Pérez, Jose Antonio Merchán-Baeza, Katie Powers, Kristelle Craven, Jain Holmes, Julie Phillips, Ruth Tyerman and Kate Radford
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:142
  7. Longitudinal ordinal data are commonly analyzed using a marginal proportional odds model for relating ordinal outcomes to covariates in the biomedical and health sciences. The generalized estimating equation (...

    Authors: Yukio Tada and Tosiya Sato
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:140
  8. Large language models (LLMs) that can efficiently screen and identify studies meeting specific criteria would streamline literature reviews. Additionally, those capable of extracting data from publications wou...

    Authors: Kaiming Tao, Zachary A. Osman, Philip L. Tzou, Soo-Yon Rhee, Vineet Ahluwalia and Robert W. Shafer
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:139
  9. Individualizing and optimizing treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients is a challenging problem, which would benefit from a clinically valid decision support. Stühler et al. presented blac...

    Authors: Anna Maria Sakr, Ulrich Mansmann, Joachim Havla, Begum Irmak Ön and Begum Irmak Ön
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:138
  10. Baseline imbalances have been identified in randomized trials of evolocumab and alirocumab. Our aim was to quantitatively assess (1) the presence of systematic baseline differences, and (2) the relationship of...

    Authors: F. H. van Bruggen, S. U. Zuidema and H. J. Luijendijk
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:137
  11. Generating synthetic patient data is crucial for medical research, but common approaches build up on black-box models which do not allow for expert verification or intervention. We propose a highly available m...

    Authors: Nicolas Alexander Schulz, Jasmin Carus, Alexander Johannes Wiederhold, Ole Johanns, Frederik Peters, Natalie Rath, Katharina Rausch, Bernd Holleczek, Alexander Katalinic and Christopher Gundler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:136
  12. As evidence related to the COVID-19 pandemic surged, databases, platforms, and repositories evolved with features and functions to assist users in promptly finding the most relevant evidence. In response, rese...

    Authors: Leah Hagerman, Emily C. Clark, Sarah E. Neil-Sztramko, Taylor Colangeli and Maureen Dobbins
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:135
  13. Findings from studies assessing Long Covid in children and young people (CYP) need to be assessed in light of their methodological limitations. For example, if non-response and/or attrition over time systemati...

    Authors: Natalia K Rojas, Bianca L De Stavola, Tom Norris, Mario Cortina-Borja, Manjula D Nugawela, Dougal Hargreaves, Emma Dalrymple, Kelsey McOwat, Ruth Simmons, Terence Stephenson, Roz Shafran and Snehal M Pinto Pereira
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:134
  14. Causal mediation analysis plays a crucial role in examining causal effects and causal mechanisms. Yet, limited work has taken into consideration the use of sampling weights in causal mediation analysis. In thi...

    Authors: Donna L. Coffman, Haoyu Zhou, Katherine E. Castellano, Megan S. Schuler and Daniel F. McCaffrey
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:133
  15. Accelerometers, devices that measure body movements, have become valuable tools for studying the fragmentation of rest-activity patterns, a core circadian rhythm dimension, using metrics such as inter-daily st...

    Authors: Ian Meneghel Danilevicz, Vincent Theodoor van Hees, Frank C. T. van der Heide, Louis Jacob, Benjamin Landré, Mohamed Amine Benadjaoud and Séverine Sabia
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:132
  16. Dynamical mathematical models defined by a system of differential equations are typically not easily accessible to non-experts. However, forecasts based on these types of models can help gain insights into the...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Amna Tariq, Sushma Dahal, Amanda Bleichrodt, Ruiyan Luo and James M. Hyman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:131
  17. Faced with the high cost and limited efficiency of classical randomized controlled trials, researchers are increasingly applying adaptive designs to speed up the development of new drugs. However, the applicat...

    Authors: Yuning Wang, Minghong Yao, Jiali Liu, Yanmei Liu, Yu Ma, Xiaochao Luo, Fan Mei, Hunong Xiang, Kang Zou, Ling Li and Xin Sun
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:130
  18. While clinical coding is intended to be an objective and standardized practice, it is important to recognize that it is not entirely the case. The clinical and bureaucratic practices from event of death to a c...

    Authors: Alexandria Chung, George Addo Opoku-Pare and Holly Tibble
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:129
  19. Clinical prediction models can help identify high-risk patients and facilitate timely interventions. However, developing such models for rare diseases presents challenges due to the scarcity of affected patien...

    Authors: Pedro Cardoso, Timothy J. McDonald, Kashyap A. Patel, Ewan R. Pearson, Andrew T. Hattersley, Beverley M. Shields and Trevelyan J. McKinley
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:128
  20. An electrocardiogram is a medical examination tool for measuring different patterns of heart blood flow circle either in the form of usual or non-invasive patterns. These patterns are useful for the identifica...

    Authors: Uzair Iqbal, Riyad Almakki, Muhammad Usman, Abdullah Altameem, Mubarak Albathan and Abdul Khader Jilani
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:127
  21. A growing number of older adults (ages 65+) live with Type 1 diabetes. Simultaneously, technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have become standard of care. There is thus a need to understand ...

    Authors: Anna R. Kahkoska, Cambray Smith, Laura A. Young and Kristen Hassmiller Lich
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:126
  22. Mediation analysis is a powerful tool to identify factors mediating the causal pathway of exposure to health outcomes. Mediation analysis has been extended to study a large number of potential mediators in hig...

    Authors: Weiwei Hu, Shiyu Chen, Jiaxin Cai, Yuhui Yang, Hong Yan and Fangyao Chen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:125
  23. Multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) randomised trial designs have been proposed to evaluate multiple research questions in the confirmatory setting. In designs with several interventions, such as the 8-arm 3-stage RO...

    Authors: Babak Choodari-Oskooei, Alexandra Blenkinsop, Kelly Handley, Thomas Pinkney and Mahesh K. B. Parmar
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:124

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:143

  24. In contemporary society, depression has emerged as a prominent mental disorder that exhibits exponential growth and exerts a substantial influence on premature mortality. Although numerous research applied mac...

    Authors: Tumpa Rani Shaha, Momotaz Begum, Jia Uddin, Vanessa Yélamos Torres, Josep Alemany Iturriaga, Imran Ashraf and Md. Abdus Samad
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:123
  25. Two propensity score (PS) based balancing covariate methods, the overlap weighting method (OW) and the fine stratification method (FS), produce superb covariate balance. OW has been compared with various weigh...

    Authors: Wen Wan, Manoradhan Murugesan, Robert S. Nocon, Joshua Bolton, R. Tamara Konetzka, Marshall H. Chin and Elbert S. Huang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:122
  26. Inequities in health access and outcomes exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Embedded pragmatic randomized, controlled trials (ePCTs) can test the real-world effectiveness of health care i...

    Authors: Joanna Hikaka, Ellen M. McCreedy, Eric Jutkowitz, Ellen P. McCarthy and Rosa R. Baier
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:121
  27. To describe the methodology for conducting the CalScope study, a remote, population-based survey launched by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and understa...

    Authors: Esther Lim, Megha L. Mehrotra, Katherine Lamba, Amanda Kamali, Kristina W. Lai, Erika Meza, Stephanie Bertsch-Merbach, Irvin Szeto, Catherine Ley, Andrew B. Martin, Julie Parsonnet, Peter Robinson, David Gebhart, Noemi Fonseca, Cheng-ting Tsai, David Seftel…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:120
  28. Responsiveness to the population’s non-clinical needs encompasses various dimensions, including responsive research and an educational outreach plan at the community level. This study aims to develop a communi...

    Authors: Hooman Khanpoor, Mohammad Amerzadeh, Ahad Alizadeh, Omid Khosravizadeh and Sima Rafiei
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:119
  29. Intervention fidelity in health services research has been poor with a reported lack of understanding about what constitutes pragmatic adaptation of interventions and what constitutes failure to maintain inter...

    Authors: Abigail J. Hall, Victoria A. Goodwin and David J. Clarke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:118
  30. Although randomized trials and systematic reviews provide the best evidence to guide medical practice, many permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) studies have been published as case reports. However, the...

    Authors: Pengli Jia, Ling Wang, Xi Yang, WenTing Pei, Chang Xu, Jinglin Feng and Ying Han
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:117
  31. Extended illness-death models (a specific class of multistate models) are a useful tool to analyse situations like hospital-acquired infections, ventilation-associated pneumonia, and transfers between hospital...

    Authors: Marlon Grodd, Susanne Weber and Martin Wolkewitz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:116
  32. Nested case–control (NCC) designs are efficient for developing and validating prediction models that use expensive or difficult-to-obtain predictors, especially when the outcome is rare. Previous research has ...

    Authors: Barbara Rentroia-Pacheco, Domenico Bellomo, Inge M. M. Lakeman, Marlies Wakkee, Loes M. Hollestein and David van Klaveren
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:115
  33. Smoking is a critical risk factor responsible for over eight million annual deaths worldwide. It is essential to obtain information on smoking habits to advance research and implement preventive measures such ...

    Authors: Ali Ebrahimi, Margrethe Bang Høstgaard Henriksen, Claus Lohman Brasen, Ole Hilberg, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Lars Henrik Jensen, Abdolrahman Peimankar and Uffe Kock Wiil
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:114
  34. Health administrative databases play a crucial role in population-level multimorbidity surveillance. Determining the appropriate retrospective or lookback period (LP) for observing prevalent and newly diagnose...

    Authors: Marc Simard, Elham Rahme, Marjolaine Dubé, Véronique Boiteau, Denis Talbot and Caroline Sirois
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:113
  35. Orphan diseases, exemplified by T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, present inherent challenges due to limited data availability and complexities in effective care. This study delves into harnessing the potential ...

    Authors: Gunjan Chandra, Junfeng Wang, Pekka Siirtola and Juha Röning
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:112
  36. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) is recommended to meta-analyze diagnostic test accuracy studies (DTAs) based on aggregate or individual participant data. Since a GLMM does not have a closed-form likeli...

    Authors: Yixin Zhao, Bilal Khan and Zelalem F. Negeri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:111
  37. Systematic literature reviews (SLRs) are critical for life-science research. However, the manual selection and retrieval of relevant publications can be a time-consuming process. This study aims to (1) develop...

    Authors: Jingcheng Du, Ekin Soysal, Dong Wang, Long He, Bin Lin, Jingqi Wang, Frank J. Manion, Yeran Li, Elise Wu and Lixia Yao
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:108
  38. Semiparametric survival analysis such as the Cox proportional hazards (CPH) regression model is commonly employed in endometrial cancer (EC) study. Although this method does not need to know the baseline hazar...

    Authors: Xingfeng Li, Diana Marcus, James Russell, Eric O. Aboagye, Laura Burney Ellis, Alexander Sheeka, Won-Ho Edward Park, Nishat Bharwani, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami and Andrea G. Rockall
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:107
  39. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many intensive care units (ICUs) halted research to focus on COVID-19-specific studies.

    Authors: Brittany Dennis, Adam Deane, François Lauzier, Nicole Zytaruk, Miranda Hardie, Naomi Hammond, Simon Finfer, Yaseen Arabi, John Marshall, Lois Saunders, Diane Heels-Ansdell, John Myburgh, Serena Knowles, John Muscedere, Marlies Ostermann, Dorrilyn Rajbhandari…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:109
  40. Survival prediction using high-dimensional molecular data is a hot topic in the field of genomics and precision medicine, especially for cancer studies. Considering that carcinogenesis has a pathway-based path...

    Authors: Junjie Shen, Shuo Wang, Hao Sun, Jie Huang, Lu Bai, Xichao Wang, Yongfei Dong and Zaixiang Tang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:105
  41. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROM) provide important information, however, missing PROM data threaten the interpretability and generalizability of findings by introducing potential bias. This study aims ...

    Authors: Johanne Dam Lyhne, Allan ‘Ben’ Smith, Lars Henrik Jensen, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Lisbeth Frostholm and Signe Timm
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:104
  42. Use of participatory research methods is increasing in research trials. Once partnerships are established with end-users, there is less guidance about processes research teams can use to successfully incorpora...

    Authors: Princess E. Ackland, Hildi J. Hagedorn, Marie E. Kenny, Hope A. Salameh, Shannon M. Kehle-Forbes, Allison M. Gustavson, Leyla E. Karimzadeh and Laura A. Meis
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:103
  43. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common haematological cancer worldwide. Along with related diseases including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) and...

    Authors: Naomi Aoki, Pin-Yen Chen, Wenming Chen, Wee Joo Chng, Gin Gin Gan, Yeow Tee Goh, Jian Hou, Jeffrey Huang, Kihyun Kim, Je Jung Lee, Jin Lu, Zoe K. McQuilten, Chang Ki Min, Elizabeth Moore, Laura Oliver, Neil A. Waters…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:102
  44. Vaccine efficacy (VE) assessed in a randomized controlled clinical trial can be affected by demographic, clinical, and other subject-specific characteristics evaluated as baseline covariates. Understanding the...

    Authors: Julie Dudášová, Zdeněk Valenta and Jeffrey R. Sachs
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:101
  45. In the literature, the propriety of the meta-analytic treatment-effect produced by combining randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized studies (NRS) is questioned, given the inherent confounding in...

    Authors: John L. Moran and Ariel Linden
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2024 24:99

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