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  1. Content type: Research article

    Decision making in health and social care requires robust syntheses of both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Meta-ethnography is a seven-phase methodology for synthesising qualitative studies. Developed ...

    Authors: Emma F. France, Isabelle Uny, Nicola Ring, Ruth L. Turley, Margaret Maxwell, Edward A. S. Duncan, Ruth G. Jepson, Rachel J. Roberts and Jane Noyes

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:35

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Public and patient involvement is a routine element of health services research methods to produce better designed and reported studies. Although co-production is recommended when involving people in research,...

    Authors: Bridie Angela Evans, Alison Porter, Helen Snooks and Vanessa Burholt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:34

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Mixed effects models have been widely applied in clinical trials that involve longitudinal repeated measurements, which possibly contain missing outcome data. In meta-analysis of individual participant data (I...

    Authors: Hisashi Noma, Kazushi Maruo, Masahiko Gosho, Stephen Z. Levine, Yair Goldberg, Stefan Leucht and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:33

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Reporting quality of systematic reviews’ (SRs) abstracts is important because this is often the only information about a study that readers have. The aim of this study was to assess adherence of SR abstracts i...

    Authors: Katarina Maticic, Marina Krnic Martinic and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:32

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In some clinical situations, patients experience repeated events of the same type. Among these, cancer recurrences can result in terminal events such as death. Therefore, here we dynamically predicted the risk...

    Authors: Isao Yokota and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:31

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Self-management support programmes are effective in a range of chronic conditions however there is limited evidence for their use in the treatment of chronic headaches. The aim of this study was to test the fe...

    Authors: Kimberley White, Rachel Potter, Shilpa Patel, Vivien P. Nichols, Kirstie L. Haywood, Siew Wan Hee, Dipesh Mistry, Dawn Carnes, Stephanie J. C. Taylor, Martin Underwood and Manjit S. Matharu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:30

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Recent advances in sensor technologies have promoted the use of consumer-based accelerometers such as Fitbit Flex in epidemiological and clinical research; however, the validity of the Fitbit Flex in measuring...

    Authors: Nicklaus Redenius, Youngwon Kim and Wonwoo Byun

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:29

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  8. Content type: Research article

    It is common in applied epidemiological and clinical research to convert continuous variables into categorical variables by grouping values into categories. Such categorized variables are then often used as ex...

    Authors: Magne Thoresen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:28

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  9. Content type: Research article

    It is challenging to manage data collection as planned and creation of opportunities to adapt during the course of enrolment may be needed. This paper aims to summarize the different sampling strategies adopte...

    Authors: Ala’a Alkerwi, Jessica Pastore, Nicolas Sauvageot, Gwenaëlle Le Coroller, Valéry Bocquet, Marylène d’Incau, Gloria Aguayo, Brice Appenzeller, Dritan Bejko, Torsten Bohn, Laurent Malisoux, Sophie Couffignal, Stephanie Noppe, Charles Delagardelle, Jean Beissel, Anna Chioti…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:27

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  10. Content type: Research article

    In a qualitative evidence synthesis, too much data due to a large number of studies can undermine our ability to perform a thorough analysis. Purposive sampling of primary studies for inclusion in the synthesi...

    Authors: Heather Ames, Claire Glenton and Simon Lewin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:26

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  11. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to provide guidance to improve the completeness and clarity of meta-ethnography reporting.

    Authors: Emma F. France, Maggie Cunningham, Nicola Ring, Isabelle Uny, Edward A. S. Duncan, Ruth G. Jepson, Margaret Maxwell, Rachel J. Roberts, Ruth L. Turley, Andrew Booth, Nicky Britten, Kate Flemming, Ian Gallagher, Ruth Garside, Karin Hannes, Simon Lewin…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:25

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. Methods that improve the efficiency of trial recruitment are needed to increase successful study completions. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether s...

    Authors: Amy Rogers, Robert W. V. Flynn, Isla S. Mackenzie and Thomas M. MacDonald

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:24

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Within cancer care, dynamic evaluations of the loss in expectation of life provides useful information to patients as well as physicians. The loss of lifetime function yields the conditional loss in expectatio...

    Authors: Lasse H. Jakobsen, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Jorne L. Biccler, Tarec C. El-Galaly and Martin Bøgsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:23

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Spiritual care is defined as recognizing and responding to the needs of the human spirit when the individual is facing trauma, illness, or sadness. Providing spiritual care is one of the core aspects of holist...

    Authors: Yanli Hu, Lay Hwa Tiew and Fan Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:21

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Health economic models are critical tools to inform reimbursement agencies on health care interventions. Many clinical trials report outcomes using the frequency of an event over a set period of time, for exam...

    Authors: Gian Luca Di Tanna, Joshua K. Porter, Richard B. Lipton, Alan Brennan, Stephen Palmer, Anthony J. Hatswell, Sandhya Sapra and Guillermo Villa

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:20

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Logistic regression is often used for mediation analysis with a dichotomous outcome. However, previous studies showed that the indirect effect and proportion mediated are often affected by a change of scales i...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Jos W. R. Twisk, Iris Eekhout and Martijn W. Heymans

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:19

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  17. Content type: Technical advance

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a model-based design for phase I trials, which aims to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a new therapy. The CRM has been shown to be more accurate in targeting...

    Authors: Graham M. Wheeler, Adrian P. Mander, Alun Bedding, Kristian Brock, Victoria Cornelius, Andrew P. Grieve, Thomas Jaki, Sharon B. Love, Lang’o Odondi, Christopher J. Weir, Christina Yap and Simon J. Bond

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:18

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), bispectral index (BIS), and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) represent valuable, yet dynamic intraoperative monitoring variables. They provide information related to poor outc...

    Authors: Michael P. Schnetz, Harry S. Hochheiser, David J. Danks, Douglas P. Landsittel, Keith M. Vogt, James W. Ibinson, Steven L. Whitehurst, Sean P. McDermott, Melissa Giraldo Duque and Ata M. Kaynar

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:17

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Standard random-effects meta-analysis methods perform poorly when applied to few studies only. Such settings however are commonly encountered in practice. It is unclear, whether or to what extent small-sample-...

    Authors: Svenja E. Seide, Christian Röver and Tim Friede

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:16

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Patient reported outcomes are increasingly used to assess the success of surgical procedures. Patient reported complications are often included as an outcome. However, these data must be validated to be accura...

    Authors: Sung Mu Heo, Justine M. Naylor, Ian A. Harris and Timothy R. Churches

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal categorical variables are sometimes restricted in terms of how individuals transition between categories over time. For example, with a time-dependent measure of smoking categorised as never-smoke...

    Authors: Anurika Priyanjali De Silva, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Alysha Madhu De Livera, Katherine Jane Lee and Julie Anne Simpson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:14

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  22. Content type: Research article

    At the diabetic clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, health professionals provide regular follow-up to help people with diabetes live long and relatively healthy lives. Based on patient condition, ...

    Authors: Tafere Tilahun Aniley, Legesse Kassa Debusho, Zelalem Mehari Nigusie, Wondwosen Kassahun Yimer and Belay Birlie Yimer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:13

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are a pragmatic trial design, providing an unprecedented opportunity to increase the robustness of evidence underpinning implementation and quality improvement...

    Authors: Caroline A. Kristunas, Karla Hemming, Helen Eborall, Sandra Eldridge and Laura J. Gray

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:12

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  24. Content type: Research article

    A key element in the interaction between clinicians and patients with cancer is reassurance giving. Learning about the stochastic nature of reassurances as well as making inferential statements about the influ...

    Authors: Valentin Popov, Alesha Ellis-Robinson and Gerald Humphris

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:11

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The benefit of a given treatment can be evaluated via a randomized clinical trial design. However, protocol deviations may severely compromise treatment effect since such deviations often lead to missing value...

    Authors: Abdul-Karim Iddrisu and Freedom Gumedze

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:10

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  26. Content type: Technical advance

    Observational burden of illness studies are used in pharmacoepidemiology to address a variety of objectives, including contextualizing the current treatment setting, identifying important treatment gaps, and p...

    Authors: Karissa M. Johnston, Pardis Lakzadeh, Bonnie M. K. Donato and Shelagh M. Szabo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:9

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  27. Content type: Debate

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are generally regarded as the “gold standard” for providing quantifiable evidence around the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new healthcare technologies. In order to...

    Authors: Matthew Franklin and Joanna Thorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:8

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Data are limited regarding how to effectively and efficiently identify patient priorities for research or clinical care. Our goal was to compare the comprehensiveness and efficiency of group concept mapping (G...

    Authors: Kristin L. Rising, Marianna LaNoue, Alexzandra T. Gentsch, Amanda M. B. Doty, Amy Cunningham, Brendan G. Carr, Judd E. Hollander, Lori Latimer, Larry Loebell, Gail Weingarten, Neva White and Geoffrey Mills

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:7

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The Norwegian Tonsil Surgery Register (NTSR) was launched in January 2017. The purpose of the register is to present data on tonsil surgery to facilitate improvements in patient care. Data used for evaluating ...

    Authors: Siri Wennberg, Lasse A. Karlsen, Joacim Stalfors, Mette Bratt and Vegard Bugten

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:6

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Studies elucidating health-related information and special needs of Syrian migrants living in Germany are urgently required. However, data is scarce and finding appropriate sampling strategies to obtain repres...

    Authors: Tobias Weinmann, Amal AlZahmi, Andreas Schneck, Julian Felipe Mancera Charry, Günter Fröschl and Katja Radon

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:5

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  31. Content type: Research article

    In a randomised controlled trial, contamination is defined as the receipt of active intervention amongst participants in the control arm. This review assessed the processes leading to contamination, its typica...

    Authors: Nicholas Magill, Ruth Knight, Paul McCrone, Khalida Ismail and Sabine Landau

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:4

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  32. Content type: Research article

    There are significant challenges to the successful conduct of non-inferiority trials because they require large numbers to demonstrate that an alternative intervention is “not too much worse” than the standard...

    Authors: Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Reshma Jagsi, Jinani Jayasekera, Natasha K. Stout, Sandra A. Mitchell and Eric J. Feuer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:3

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Many epidemiological studies test trends when investigating the association between a risk factor and a disease outcome. Continuous exposures are commonly discretized when the outcome is nonlinearly related to...

    Authors: Naomi C. Brownstein and Jianwen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:2

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Mucosal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides offer protection against acquisition and carriage of encapsulated bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Measurements of salivary antibodies as repla...

    Authors: Mariëtte B. van Ravenhorst, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Debbie M. van Rooijen, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders and Guy A. M. Berbers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2019 19:1

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Although in recent years there has been a strong increase in published research on theories (e.g. realist evaluation, normalization process theory) driving and guiding process evaluations of complex interventi...

    Authors: P. Masterson-Algar, C. R. Burton and J. Rycroft-Malone

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:180

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The use of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk estimation scores in primary prevention has long been established. However, their performance still remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to explor...

    Authors: Alexandros C. Dimopoulos, Mara Nikolaidou, Francisco Félix Caballero, Worrawat Engchuan, Albert Sanchez-Niubo, Holger Arndt, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Christos Pitsavos and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:179

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The concept of “mechanism” is central to realist approaches to research, yet research teams struggle to operationalize and apply the concept in empirical research. Our large, interdisciplinary research team ha...

    Authors: James Shaw, Carolyn Steele Gray, G. Ross Baker, Jean-Louis Denis, Mylaine Breton, Jennifer Gutberg, Gaya Embuldeniya, Peter Carswell, Annette Dunham, Ann McKillop, Timothy Kenealy, Nicolette Sheridan and Walter Wodchis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:178

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Exploring factors associated with retention in randomised trials provides insight into potential threats to internal and external study validity, and may inform the development of interventions to increase ret...

    Authors: Alexandra P. Metse, Nur Ashikin Noor Hizam, John Wiggers, Paula Wye and Jenny A. Bowman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:177

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  39. Content type: Research article

    In order to accurately measure and monitor levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults, cost efficient and valid instruments are required. To date, the ...

    Authors: Claire Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:176

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  40. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the quality of data sources used to study cough and cold medication (CCM) safety in children via the Pediatric Cough and Cold Safety Surveillance System.

    Authors: Jody L. Green, Kate M. Reynolds, William Banner, G. Randall Bond, Ralph E. Kauffman, Robert B. Palmer, Ian M. Paul and Richard C. Dart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:175

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Observational studies of medical interventions or risk factors are potentially biased by unmeasured confounding. In this paper we propose a Bayesian approach by defining an informative prior for the confounder...

    Authors: Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Inbal Shofty, Milica Miočević, Maarten van Smeden and Irene Klugkist

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:174

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of scientific evidence, but successful participant recruitment is critical to ensure the external and internal validity of results. This study desc...

    Authors: Rachel L. Duckham, Jamie L. Tait, Caryl A. Nowson, Kerrie M. Sanders, Dennis R. Taaffe, Keith D. Hill and Robin M. Daly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:173

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Little evidence is available on searches for non-randomized studies (NRS) in bibliographic databases within the framework of systematic reviews. For instance, it is currently unclear whether, when searching fo...

    Authors: Elke Hausner, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter, Fabian Lotz and Siw Waffenschmidt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:171

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Missing data are common in tobacco studies. It is well known that from the observed data alone, it is impossible to distinguish between missing mechanisms such as missing at random (MAR) and missing not at ran...

    Authors: Yiwen Zhang, Xianghua Luo, Chap T. Le, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia and Janet L. Thomas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:170

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Clinical trials are an essential part of evidence-based medicine. Hence, to ensure transparency and accountability in these clinical trials, policies for registration have been framed with emphasis on mandator...

    Authors: Victoria J. Serpas, Kanwal P. Raghav, Daniel M. Halperin, James Yao and Michael J. Overman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:169

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Multiple imputation (MI) is now widely used to handle missing data in longitudinal studies. Several MI techniques have been proposed to impute incomplete longitudinal covariates, including standard fully condi...

    Authors: Md Hamidul Huque, John B. Carlin, Julie A. Simpson and Katherine J. Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:168

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Workplace health interventions incorporating qualitative and quantitative components (mixed methods) within a Participatory Action Research approach can increase understanding of contextual issues ensuring rea...

    Authors: Marguerite C. Sendall, Laura K. McCosker, Alison Brodie, Melissa Hill and Phil Crane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:167

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cohorts often lack long-term survival data, and are summarized instead by initial treatment outcomes. When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohor...

    Authors: Meredith B. Brooks, Salmaan Keshavjee, Irina Gelmanova, Nataliya A. Zemlyanaya, Carole D. Mitnick and Justin Manjourides

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2018 18:166

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